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ISF regulated pest list database

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List of references by Crop

List of references by Pest Type

1062 items in table, 1062 items shown, 0 items filtered out.

Pest Pest classification Detection Risk mitigation
Species Crop Scientific Name Additional Info Complementary Info Type Is seed a pathway in this crop? References Remarks Is there a seed test? If yes, type of test References Remarks Can the pest be managed by seed treatment(s)? If yes, what type(s)? References Remarks
Allium cepa Onion Colletotrichum circinans Synonym: Colletotrichum dematium f. sp. circinans Fungus No 2-5, 2-37 C. circinans is the causal agent of smudge on onion bulbs. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. circinans in onion. The fungus is soilborne and spread by infested plant material and soil. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. circinans on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Aceria tulipae Synonym: Eriophyes tulipae Insect No 2-32, 2-60, 2-99 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. tulipae in onion. This mite is primarily regarded as a damaging pest of stored garlic bulbs and is connected with the transmission of mite-borne viruses in garlic and shallot. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. tulipae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pectobacterium rhapontici Synonym: Erwinia rhapontici Bacterium No 2-45, 2-91, 2-92, 2-93 E. rhapontici is a wound pathogen that is known to occur on onion. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. rhapontici in onion. Seed can be a pathway in peas and bean. The pathogen is also the causal agent of bulb rot in garlic. In experiments with naturally infected seeds of pea or artificially inoculated seeds of bean and wheat, E. rhapontici did not establish systemic infection throughout the plants. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. rhapontici on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Ditylenchus destructor Nematode No 2-86, 2-87, 2-88 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. destrutor in onion. Onion can be a host but it is potato that is mainly affected. True seeds (including grains) are not known to carry the pest. Experimentally it was shown that onion bulbs can be affected. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. destructor on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Embellisia allii Fungus No 2-112, 2-113, 2-165 E. allii has been reported on onion but there are no references indicating seed as a pathway for E. allii in onion. Causal agent of skin blotch and bulb canker in garlic. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of E. allii on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Eumerus strigatus Insect No 2-114, 2-115, 2-160 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for E. strigatus on onion. Damage on onion is limited. Narcissus fly or onion bulb fly mainly causes damage on hyacinth, narcissus and tulips. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of E. trigatus on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Eumerus tuberculatus Insect No 2-114, 2-116, 2-117, 2-161 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for E. tuberculatus on onion. Lesser bulb flies are sometimes damaging to onion, narcissus, and hyacinth. Other hosts include shallots, garlic, iris, lilies, parsnips, potato tubers, amaryllis, cabbage roots. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of E. tuberculatus on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Frankliniella spp. Insect No 2-69, 2-70, 2-162, 2-163 Thrips can cause injury to onions and possibly vector Pantoea ananatis and Iris yellow spot virus in the field. However, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Frankliniella spp. on onion. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of thrips being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Frankliniella spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Fungus No 2-3, 2-119, 2-141 This fungus is the causal agent of basal rot and is commonly found in soil. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae on onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Fusarium tricinctum Fungus No 2-120, 2-141 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for F. tricinctum in onion. F. tricinctum is known to cause damping off and recently identified as a causal agent of pink rot (storage rot) of onion bulbs. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. tricinctum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) Virus No 2-6, 2-53, 2-54, 2-172 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for IYSV in onion. This tospovirus is vectored by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of IYSV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) Virus No 2-54, 2-56, 2-173 Onion is not easily infected by LYSV. The main hosts for this potyvirus are leek, garlic and shallots. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for LYSV in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of LYSV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Liriomyza trifolii Insect No 2-72, 2-164, 2-168 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for L. trifolii on onion. Leaf miners in onion and garlic belong to three related species L. huidobrensis, L. trifolii and L. sativae. Leaf miners are easily transported with plant material such as cut flowers, branches with foliage and leafy vegetables. Seed is not known as one of the plant materials for spread of leaf miners. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of L. trifolii on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Longidorus spp. Common species: Longidorus elongatus Nematode No 2-4, 2-126, 2-141, 2-155 Longidorus africanis is the needle nematode species associated with disease of onion. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Longidorus spp. in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Longidorus spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Meloidogyne graminicola Nematode No 2-4, 2-127, 2-151 The Dutch PPO PRA on Meloidogyne minor clearly states that this genera of nematodes are not associated with seed. In addition, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Meloidogyne spp. on onion. The root-knot nematode has a worldwide distribution. M. incognita, M. hapla, M. javanica and M. chitwoodi have been reported as parasites of onion and garlic. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. graminicola on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Meloidogyne incognita Nematode No 2-1, 2-4, 2-127, 2-151 The Dutch PPO PRA on Meloidogyne minor clearly states that this genera of nematodes are not associated with seed. In addition, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Meloidogyne incognita on onion. The root-knot nematode has a worldwide distribution. M. incognita, M. hapla, M. javanica and M. chitwoodi have been reported as parasites of onion and garlic. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. incognita on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Meloidogyne spp. Nematode No 2-1, 2-4, 2-127, 2-151 The Dutch PPO PRA on Meloidogyne minor clearly states that this genera of nematodes are not associated with seed. In addition, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Meloidogyne spp. on onion. The root-knot nematode has a worldwide distribution. M. incognita, M. hapla, M. javanica and M. chitwoodi have been reported as parasites of onion and garlic. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Meloidogyne spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Cornu aspersum Synonym: Helix aspersa Insect No 2-71, 2-85 C. aspersum (the brown garden snail) can be a pest on onion plants, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. aspersum on onion. Normal harvesting, seed cleaning and sanitization of onion seed would reduce the threat of C. aspersum being associated with the seed. This mollusc can be transported long distances on plant material. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. aspersum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) Virus No 2-1, 2-4, 2-41, 2-73, 2-133, 2-176, 2-177, 2-178 OYDV is a potyvirus that has a host range limited to various species of Allium, including onions. There is very limited information on seed as a pathway for this virus. One older reference indicates seed as a pathway based solely on visual observations. The presence of the virus was not verified by any testing methods. It is known that seed from plants infected with OYDV give rise to weak unhealthy plants. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for OYDV in onion. The virus is transmitted during vegetative propagation or by aphids (for instance Myzus persicae). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of OYDV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Delia antiqua Synonym: Hylemia antiqua Insect No 2-4, 2-5 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. antiqua (the onion maggot) on onion seed. It overwinters as pupa in soil. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. antiqua on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Paratrichodorus spp. Nematode No 2-67, 2-141 P. allius, P. minor and P. teres have been reported on onion, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for these nematodes in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Paratrichodorus spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pratylenchus penetrans Nematode No 2-57, 2-81, 2-141 Onion is known to be a host of P. penetrans, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. penetrans on onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. penetrans on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis Bacterium No 2-59, 2-79 P. marginalis pv marginalis is known to occur on onion, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway P. marginalis pv. marginalis in onion. Causal agent of stalk and leaf necrosis as well as bulb soft rot. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. marginalis pv. marginalis on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri Bacterium No 2-58, 2-77, 2-78 P. syringae pv. porri is known to occur on onion, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for P syringae pv. porri in onion. This pathogen is known to be seed-borne in leek. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. porri on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pseudomonas viridiflava Bacterium No 2-1, 2-80, 2-141 P. viridiflava has been reported to occur on onion, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. viridiflava in onion. It is thought to be an opportunistic but weak pathogen. In the areas where this disease is a concern, an abundant local source of overwintering inoculum on soybeans is suspected to be a cause. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. viridiflava on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Puccinia asparagi Fungus No 2-4, 2-38, 2-39, 2-51 Onion can be a host of P. asparagi but it is not common. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. asparagi in onion. Causal agent of rust in asparagus. May also attack shallot and chives. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. asparagi on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pythium graminicola Oomycete No 2-1, 2-49, 2-141 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. graminicola in onion. The fungus is a ubiquitous soil-borne pest. Onion is a host especially at the seedling stage. Planting treated seed is important in dealing with the fungus in onion. No information could be found for this host-pest combination in literature since 1973. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. graminicola on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pythium irregulare Oomycete No 2-1, 2-49, 2-141 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. irregulare in onion. The fungus is a ubiquitous soil-borne pest. Planting treated seed is important in dealing with this fungus in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. irregulare on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pythium vexans Oomycete No 2-1, 2-49, 2-141 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. vexans in onion. The fungus is a ubiquitous soil-borne pest. Planting treated seed is important in dealing with this fungus in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. vexans on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Fungus No 2-1, 2-31, 2-141, 2-183 Onion is known to be host of S. sclerotiorum. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. sclerotiorum in onion. Causal agent of Sclerotinia rot of onions. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. sclerotiorum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Sclerotium cepivorum Fungus No 2-83, 2-89 Allium spp. are the primary hosts of S. cepivorum. The fungus is ubiquitous in soil worldwide. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. cepivorum in onion. Causal agent of white rot of onion. Sclerotia of the fungus survive in soil for many years. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. cepivorum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Spodoptera littoralis Insect No 2-158, 2-159 The Egyptian cottonworm has a very wide host range including onion. No references were found indicating seed as a pathway for S. littoralis in onion. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should reduce the threat of this insect being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. littoralis on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Stegobium paniceum Insect No 2-1, 2-141, 2-157 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. paniceum in onion. Stegobium paniceum (drugstore beetle, biscuit beetle, bread beetle) is very common and found worldwide. It can cause damage on grains. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. paniceum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) Virus No 2-1, 2-85, 2-95, 2-141, 2-152, 2-153, 2-154, 2-182 Tomato black ring virus is reported to be soil borne and only rarely has onion been noted as a host. Older literature has been cited for seed as a pathway, however, those articles do not mention Allium cepa at all. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for TBRV in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TBRV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Setophoma terrestris Synonym: Phoma terrestris, Pyrenochaeta terrestris Fungus No 2-5, 2-48, 2-49 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. terrestris in onion. Causal agent of pink root of onion. The fungus survives in soil. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. terrestis on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Burkholderia cepacia Synonym: Pseudomonas cepacia Bacterium No 2-5, 2-34, 2-35, 2-75 No references indicating seed as a pathway B. cepacia in onion. The bacterium causes sour skin of onion and is commonly isolated from soil and plants. The disease expresses itself when subject to poor cultural practices as well as wet weather, overhead irrigation and poorly cured (stored) bulbs. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of B. cepacia on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Burkholderia gladioli pv. alliicola Synonym: Pseudomonas gladioli pv. alliicola Bacterium No 2-50, 2-76 No references indicating seed as a pathway for B. gladioli pv. alliicola in onion. The bacterium causes slippery skin of onions and is commonly isolated from soil and onion refuse. A wet environment is reported to be a major cause of an outbreak of disease. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of B. gladioli pv. alliicola on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Macrophomina phaseolina Synonym: Sclerotium bataticola Fungus No 2-1, 2-4 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for M. phaseolina in onion. Causal agent of charcoal rot in garlic and onion. The pathogen survives as sclerotia in soil, colonized plant debris, or weeds. Seed can be a pathway for this fungus in bean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. phaseolina on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Botrytis squamosa Teleomorph: Botryotinia squamosa Fungus No 2-14, 2-19, 2-20 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for B. squamosa in onion. Primarily a leaf blight pathogen of onion found in temperate regions when bulb or seed productions coincide with high relative humidity and rainfall. The fungus overwinters 1) in onion cull piles as sclerotia or mycelia on bulbs or onion leaf debris, or 2) as sclerotia in the soil. Disease is initiated and spread by airborne conidia. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of B. squamosa on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Aphelenchoides besseyi Synonym: Aphelenchoides oryzae Nematode Not a host 2-100, 2-139 No references found indicating onion as a host of A. besseyi. The rice white-tip nematode is a seed-borne plant parasitic nematode in rice. It is listed as a quarantine pest on the EPPO A2 list. The main hosts are rice and strawberry. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. besseyi on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Thielaviopsis basicola Synonym: Chalara elegans Fungus Not a host 2-36, 2-107, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of T. basicola. This soilborne fungus is the causal agent of black root rot in cotton, tobacco and soybean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of T. basicola on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Aphelenchoides fragariae Nematode Not a host 2-140 No references found indicating onion as a host of A. fragariae. This is a foliar nematode with an extensive host range and a major pest of strawberries worldwide. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. fragariae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Ascochyta abelmoschi Fungus Not a host 2-1, 2-101, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of A. abelmoschi. This fungus is the causal agent of leaf spot, pod spot or stem spot on okra and it has been isolated from okra seeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. abelmoschi on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Bacterium Not a host 2-108 No references found indicating onion as a host of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, which is the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. When inoculated experimentally, the bacterium was not pathogenic to onion leaf tissue. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae Fungus Not a host 2-109 Onion was reported as a host of D. phaseolorum var sojae in the IMI description in 1973, however, no other references found indicating onion as a host of D. phaseolorum var sojae. The fungus is the causal agent of pod and stem blight on soyabean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. phaseolorum var. sojae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Dyspessa ulula Insect No 2-85, 2-134, 2-180 Dyspessa ulula, commonly known as the garlic borer, can affect onions, however, it is most commonly found on garlic. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. ulula on onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. ulula on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Globodera spp. Nematode Not a host 2-81, 2-122, 2-123 No references found indicating onion as a host of Globodera spp. The nematode has a very narrow host range. One reference states that G. rostochiensis invaded the roots of onion but was not able to develop beyond the 2nd larval stage. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Globodera spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Heterodera spp. Nematode Not a host 2-124, 2-125, 2-170, 2-171 Only one obscure and dated report found that onion is a host of Heterodera spp. and it was H. mothi. No other references found indicating onion as a host of Heterodera spp. Onion was reported or mentioned as a non-host for H. zeae and H. schachtii. Heterodera is most common on soybean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Heterodera spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Naupactus spp. Common species: Naupactus leucoloma Insect Not a host 2-110, 2-144 No references found indicating onion as a host of Naupactus spp., the white fringed beetle. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Naupactus spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Okra leaf curl virus (OLCV) Virus Not a host 2-129 No references found indicating onion as a host of OLCV. This is a major pest in okra. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of OLCV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Onion mosaic virus Virus Not a host 2-47, 2-74, 2-130, 2-131, 2-132 Onion mosaic virus is an invalid virus name and not recognized by the ICTV! It was re-identified as well-known viruses or as strains or mixtures of such viruses. Old references in Russian indicate that the virus is transmitted by aphids or the insect Acerina tulipae. These references also indicated that infected seeds do not germinate. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Onion mosaic virus on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Mycosphaerella schoenoprasi Synonym: Mycosphaerella allicina Fungus Not a host 2-128, 2-141, 2-145 No references found indicating onion as a host of M. schoenoprasi. The only references to M schoenoprasi are out of Japan and indicate the hosts are A. porrum and A. fistulosum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. schoenoprasi on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Phoma sabdariffae Fungus Not a host 2-136, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. sabdaiffae. The fungus is reported as a pathogen of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. sabdariffae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Phomopsis longicolla Fungus Not a host 2-137, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. longicolla. The fungus is a pathogen of soybean and the causal agent of seed decay. Seed can be a pathway in soybean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. longicolla on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Phytophthora capsici Fungus Not a host 2-4, 2-64, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. capsici. Causal agent of Phytophthora blight in pepper. Seed is not known to be a pathway for this fungus in pepper or any other crops. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. capsici on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pratylenchus brachyurus Nematode Not a host 2-61, 2-63, 2-81, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. brachyurus. Experimental inoculations showed that onions were not susceptible. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. brachyurus on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pratylenchus coffeae Nematode Not a host 2-62, 2-81, 2-141 There is only one dated reference ('60s) that indicates P. coffae can be associated with onion. No other references indicating onion as a host of this nematode. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. coffeae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pseudomonas corrugata Bacterium Not a host 2-1, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. corrugata. This bacterium is the causal agent of pith necrosis in tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. corrugata on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans Bacterium Not a host 2-1, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. syringae pv. lachrymans. This bacterium is the causal agent of angular leafspot in cucurbits. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. lachrymans on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Bacterium Not a host 2-1, 2-55, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of P. syringae pv. syringae. The bacterium has a wide host range, however, on vegetables it is most commonly known as the causal agent of bacterial brown spot on beans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. syringae on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Synchytrium endobioticum Fungus Not a host 2-1, 2-5, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of S. endobioticum. This bacterium is the causal agent of canker or wart disease in potato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. endobioticum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Virus Not a host 2-1 No references found indicating onion as a host of TMV. The virus does infect tomato and pepper and seed can be a pathway in those crops. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TMV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Virus Not a host 2-1, 2-141, 2-156 No references found indicating onion as a host of TRSV. The virus does infect tomato and pepper. Seed can be a pathway in soybean and weeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TRSV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) Virus Not a host 2-1, 2-5, 2-10, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of ToRSV. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of ToRSV on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Urocystis agropyri Oomycete Not a host 2-1, 2-141, 2-148 U. agropyri is the causal agent of flag smut in wheat. No references found indicating onion as a host of U. agropyri. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of U. agropyri on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Ustilago allii Fungus Not a host 2-1, 2-82 Ustilago allii is an invalid fungal name! The reference to this fungal name is from 1895. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of U. allii on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Verticillium albo-atrum Fungus Not a host 2-1, 2-4, 2-141 Although V. albo-atrum has a wide host range, no references found indicating that onion is a host of V. albo-atrum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of V. albo-atrum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Bacterium Not a host 2-1, 2-4, 2-5, 2-141 No references found indicating that onion is a host of X. campestris pv. phaseoli. This bacterium is the causal agent of common blight and fuscous blight on beans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. campestris pv. phaseoli on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Fusarium avenaceum Teleomorph: Gibberella avenacea Fungus No 2-1, 2-85, 2-118, 2-141, 2-167, 2-181 F. avenaceum is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen. Onion is not a common host for F. avenaceum. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for F. avenaceum on onion. It is most commonly found on grains. Seed may be a pathway on grains and clover. One reference indicates this fungus was once isolated from onion seeds but there was no confirmation of onion as a host. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. avenaceum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Bacterium Not a host 2-1, 2-4, 2-5, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. This bacterium is the causal agent of bacterial spot on tomato and pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians Bacterium Not a host 2-1, 2-4, 2-5, 2-141 No references found indicating onion as a host of X. campestris pv. vitians. The bacterium is the causal agent of bacterial wilt or dry leaf spot on lettuce. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. campestris pv. vitians on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Cercospora duddiae Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-4, 2-106 C. duddiae is the causal agent of leaf blight or withertip which is of limited importance. Seed as a pathway was implied in earlier literature (1960) but no other references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. duddiae on onion. Transmission by air-borne or water-splash dispersed conidia, and by transportation with onion bulbs. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. duddiae on onion seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for C. duddiae on onion. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Dickeya chrysanthemi Synonym: Erwinia chrysanthemi Bacterium Pathway not proven 2-68, 2-166 There are reports of D. chrysanthemi causing a bacterial soft rot of onions under certain conditions. There is one report of an association of the bacterium with onion seed in 1989. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. chrysanthemi in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. chrysanthemi on onion seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for D. chrysanthemi on onion. No No references found describing a seed treatment for D. chrysanthemi on onion.
Allium cepa Onion Botrytis cinerea Teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana Fungus Pathway not proven 2-14, 2-104 B. cinerea is the causal agent of brown stain of onion bulbs. B. cinerea is ubiquitous and is commonly found in and on senescing and dead plant tissue. Although an association with seed may occur, seed as a pathway has not been confirmed to be a significant factor in the epidemiology of the disease. Bulb infection is restricted to the outer surface and is primarily cosmetic. This species of Botrytis is not associated with neck rot of onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of B. cinerea on onion seed. Yes Incubation 2-104 B. cinerea differentiated from B. allii by morphological characteristics. In agar testing this species would be detected in parallel with testing for the presence of B. allii. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 2-25, 2-26 Seed treatments used to control B. allii would be effective against B. cinerea.
Allium cepa Onion Botrytis porri Teleomorph: Botryotinia porri Fungus Pathway not proven 2-15 B. porri is primarily a pathogen of garlic and leek. One abstract indicates an association of the fungus with onion seed. However, no other references found indicating seed as a pathway for B. porri on onion. In a survey of a symptomless field, B. porri was isolated from the seed but there was no damage to the crop. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of B. porri on onion seed. Yes Incubation 2-15 A rudimentary plating method is described in this reference. A description of a validated seed assay was not found. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 2-25, 2-27 Seed treatments used to control B. allii would be effective against B. porri.
Allium cepa Onion Botrytis allii Synonym: Botrytis aclada Fungus Yes 2-1, 2-13, 2-14, 2-104, 2-105 B. allii is one of the primary causal agents of neck rot in onion. Both names (B. allii and B. aclada) are generally used. Two subgroups within B. aclada (AI and AII) have been distinguished based on chromosome number and conidial dimension. Yohalem et.al proposed that B. aclada be reserved for the small-spored subgroup AI and B. allii for the larger-spored subgroup AII of B. aclada. Seed is a known pathway for B. allii in onion and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes DNA/RNA based, Incubation 2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-175 Method descriptions include blotter incubation and a molecular method with PCR. The latter is an indirect method of testing (no isolation of the pathogen) and viable and non-viable pathogens not distinguished. A seed test is commercially available. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating), Biopesticide (seed coating) 2-25, 2-27, 2-28 Seed treatments effective in controlling B. allii on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Botrytis byssoidea Teleomorph: Botryotinia allii Fungus Yes 2-13, 2-14, 2-104 B. byssoidea is one of the primary causal agents of neck rot of onion (with B. allii). Seed is a known pathway for B. byssoidea in onion and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Incubation 2-13, 2-104, 2-175 B. byssoidea differentiated from B. allii by morphological characteristics. In agar testing this species would be detected in parallel with testing for the presence of B. alli. A seed test is commerically available. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 2-25, 2-27 Seed treatments effective in controlling B. byssoidea on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Trogoderma granarium Insect Not a host 2-98, 2-149, 2-184, 2-185, 2-186, 2-187, 2-188, 2-189 No references found indicating that onion can be affected by T. granarium or that onion is a host. T. granarium, commonly known as the Khapra beetle, is usually associated with grains and cereals. Most damage occurs in storage warehouses. Even in grains and cereals, eggs are not laid inside the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of T. granarium onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Trogoderma spp. Insect Not a host 2-149, 2-150 No references found indicating that onion can be affected by Trogoderma spp. or that onion is a host. There are many Trogoderma species.The most common is T. granarium. See that entry for further information and additional references. These insects are storage pests of grains and cereals. Even in grains and cereals, eggs are not laid inside the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Trogoderma spp. on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Synonym: Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora Bacterium No 2-1, 2-5, 2-141 P. carotovorum subsp carotovorum is the causal agent of bacterial soft rot of onion and numerous other crops. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. carotovorum subsp carotovorum on onion seed.
Allium cepa Onion Fusarium proliferatum Synonym: Cephalosporium proliferatum Fungus Pathway not proven 2-120, 2-121, 2-169 Seed as a pathway has not been clearly established. There are two reports of an association with seed but the importance of this pathway is not clear. Causal agent of pink rot (storage rot) of onion bulbs. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 2-121 Agar plating method. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Aspergillus niger Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-17, 2-102 Seed can be a pathway for A. niger in onion. However, its significance in the epidemiology of the disease is uncertain. This fungus is very common in soil and field refuse. Causal agent of black mold on onion, garlic, carrot, pods of beans and peas and other vegetables and fruits. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 2-29 Rudimentary plating method. Validated seed assay not found. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 2-17, 2-18 Hot water or seed treatment with fungicides is effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Peronospora destructor Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-5, 2-22, 2-65 P. destructor is the causal agent of downy mildew in onion. There is conflicting evidence as to whether seed is a pathway for P. destructor in onion and whether it plays a significant role in the epidemiology of the disease. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for P. destructor on onion. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Puccinia allii Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-44, 2-52, 2-138, 2-141 Onion is known to be a host of P. allii, however, seed as a pathway is not proven. The association of spores with seed as a factor in the epidemiology of the disease is not certain. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for P. destructor on onion. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Urocystis cepulae Synonym: Urocystis colchici Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-42, 2-147 U. cepulae is the causal agent of smut on onion. Teliospores can be associated with onion seed, however, this means of distribution is considered unimportant. Fungus overwinters in soil for 15 years or longer. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Dry-seed inspection 2-146 A seed test is commercially available. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-2, 2-46 Causal agent of leaf anthracnose and twister disease in onion but seed as a pathway is not proven. One reference implies that seed may have been a factor in anthracnose outbreaks in Brazil in 1996 and is cited repeatedly. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. gloeosporioides on onion. Spores of the fungus survive in the soil and crop debris and can be disseminated through water and possibly seed. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for C. gloeosporioides on onion. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Cladosporium allii-cepae Teleomorph: Mycosphaerella allii-cepae Fungus Pathway not proven 2-1, 2-21 C. allii-cepae is the causal agent of leaf blotch but seed as a pathway is not proven. One reference describes glasshouse tests where flower inflorescences of onions were dusted with conidia of C. allii-cepae, a few onion seeds became contaminated. No infected onion seeds were obtained from naturally-infected plants in the field. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. allii-cepae in onion. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for C. allii-cepae on onion. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Stemphylium botryosum Teleomorph: Pleospora herbarum Fungus Pathway not proven 2-90, 2-94, 2-96, 2-97, 2-118 Some references indicate an association of S. botryosum spores with seed, however, no references found to indicate that seed is a proven pathway in onion seed. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for S. botryosum on onion. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Allium cepa Onion Alternaria porri Fungus Yes 2-1, 2-16 Seed is a pathway in onion. A. porri is the causal agent of purple blotch on onion, garlic, leek and probably other Allium spp. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 2-16, 2-142 Rudimenatry plating method described in 2-16. Validated seed assay not found. Commercial seed test (2-142) is available. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 2-16 Single treatment not 100% effective
Allium cepa Onion Pantoea ananatis Synonym: Erwinia ananas Bacterium Yes 2-7, 2-9, 2-65, 2-66 Seed has been shown to be a pathway for P. ananatis in onion. Causal agent of center rot in onion bulbs. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Seed wash, DNA/RNA based 2-8, 2-9, 2-135 Agar spread plating methods described. DNA technique used for confirmation of suspected colonies. No No references found indicating seed treatments are effective against Pantoea ananatis.
Allium cepa Onion Ditylenchus dipsaci Nematode Yes 2-30, 2-40, 2-111 Seed is known to be a pathway for D. dipsaci in onion. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Dry-seed inspection 2-30, 2-40 Seed tests available in commercial laboratories. Seed is dissected underwater and observed microscopically for nematodes. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed disinfection) 2-4
Allium cepa Onion Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii Bacterium Yes 2-11, 2-12, 2-84 Seed is known to be a pathway for X. axonopodis. pv. allii in A. cepa. The pest has a narrow host range - Allium spp. - and is the causal agent of bacterial blight in onion. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Seed wash, DNA/RNA based 2-12, 2-84 Selective media and a BIO-PCR method. No validated or commercial seed assay available. PCR is an indirect way of testing (no isolation of the pathogen) and does not distinguish between viable and non-viable pathogen. No 2-174, 2-179 No references found indicating a seed treatment is effective against X. axonopodis pv allii on onion seed, however, general references found describing seed treatments effective against bacteria on seed.
Allium cepa Onion Stemphylium vesicarium Teleomorph: Pleospora allii Fungus Yes 2-16, 2-43 S. vesicarium is the causal agent of leaf blight and stalk rot of onion. The disease is most severe under warm and moist conditions. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 2-16 Plating seed on PDA. No validated seed test and no commercial seed tests available. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 2-16 Various treatments were applied and none were 100% effective
Allium cepa Onion Aster Yellows Synonym: Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris Phytoplasma No 2-33, 2-103, 2-143, 2-190, 2-191 Aster Yellows phytoplasma is transmitted by a variety of polyphagous leafhopper species and has a wide range of plant hosts. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Aster Yellows in onion. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Aster Yellows on onion seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Acarus siro Synonym: Tyroglyphus farinae Insect Yes 10-58, 10-312 Commonly known as the "flour mite", this insect has been known to be associated with stored seed of B. oleracea. It is most commonly associated with cereal seed and cereal flour. Risk of association with seed is most commonly controlled through seed treatments. No Serological 10-94, 10-145 The seed tests cited are developed on cereal crops. No references found indicating seed tests for B. oleracea. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 10-58, 10-63, 10-146, 10-147 Seed treatments can be effective against the insect. Reference 147 cites biological control using predators.
Brassica spp. Brassica Alternaria armoraciae Fungus Not a host 10-128, 10-132, 10-344 There is limited information on this species of Alternaria. Existing information indicates that A. armoraciae is only found on Armoracia rusticana (horseradish). No references found indicating that B. oleracea is host of A. armoraciae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. amoraciae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Alternaria dauci Fungus Not a host 10-77, 10-95, 10-128, 10-132, 10-331 No references found indicating B. oleracea is a natural host of A. dauci. In a very dated report, cabbage and radish were shown to be susceptible when inoculated experimentally. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. dauci on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Aphanomyces raphani Fungus No 10-12, 10-114, 10-138 A. raphani is the causal agent of black root of crucifers and is soilborne. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. raphani on B. oleracea. One reference suggests that infected plant residue associated with the seed could be a pathway. However, commercial cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for debris and dead plant tissue to be associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. raphani on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) Virus No 10-51, 10-54, 10-183, 10-258, 10-259 B. oleracea is not commonly known as a host of ArMV in nature. B. oleracea has been noted as susceptible when inoculated experimentally. Arabis mosaic virus is noted as being seedborne in a number of crops and the primary references are papers by Lister and Murant. These papers do not indicate seed as a pathway for ArMV in B. oleracea. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for ArMV on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of ArMV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Arracacha virus A Virus Not a host 10-120, 10-179, 10-332 In nature, this virus only infects Arracacha xanthorrhiza (Apiaceae) and is limited to one area of Peru. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of Arracacha virus A. Some Brassica species were susceptible when inoculated experimentally. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Arracacha virus A on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Aspergillus flavus Fungus Pathway not proven 10-1, 10-26, 10-97 No references found indicating A. flavus being the causal agent of a disease on B. oleracea. The primary information for seed as a pathway are two references wherein local seed sources were plated onto a general agar medium or a blotter. No information was provided on seed lot history, handling or cleaning. In both cases A. flavus was found as a superficial contaminant. Commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would remove superficial contaminants from being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. flavus on B. oleracea seed. No Incubation 10-26, 10-97 No references found describing a seed test for A. flavus on B. oleracea. Some descriptions of isolations of fungi associated with seed. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Aspergillus holophilicus Fungus Not a host 10-92, 10-165 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of A. holophilicus. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. holophilicus on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Aspergillus niger Fungus Pathway not proven 10-1, 10-97, 10-347 Aspergillus niger is a common saprophyte. The primary information for seed as a pathway are two references wherein local seed sources were plated onto a general agar medium or a blotter. No information was provided on seed lot history, handling or cleaning. A. niger was found as a superficial contaminant. Commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would remove superficial contaminants from being associated with the seed. Could be a seed storage contaminant if seed is stored in high humidity. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. niger on B. oleracea seed. No No references found describing a seed test for A. niger on B. oleracea. Some descriptions of isolations of fungi associated with seed. Yes Chemical (seed coating and seed disinfection) 10-19 One reference found indicating a seed treatment. In addition, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus. Seed treatments are commercially available.
Brassica spp. Brassica Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) Synonym: Turnip yellows virus Virus No 10-121, 10-165, 10-180, 10-333 BWYV has a very wide host range which includes brassica crops. Transmission is by aphid vectors, mainly the green peach aphid. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Luteoviruses. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of BWYV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Botrytis cinerea Synonym: Sclerotinia fuckeliana; Teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana Fungus No 10-92, 10-160, 10-165, 10-343 B. cinerea is an occassional problem on B. oleracea in the field usually when plants are damaged or during extensive periods of high humidity. The fungus can be the cause of a head rot in storage. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for B. cinerea in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of B. cinerea on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Broccoli necrotic yellows virus (BNYV) Virus No 10-29, 10-334 The primary means of transmission of BNYV is by aphids. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for spread of BNYV. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of BNYV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cacoecimorpha pronubana Insect No 10-47, 10-243, 10-244 Commonly known as the Carnation Tortrix, this moth can feed on Brassica species and more than 160 other species of plants. Mainly an issue on greenhouse crops (especially carnation). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. pronubana on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. pronubana on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) Virus No 10-57, 10-165, 10-182, 10-335 CaMV is transmitted by at least 27 aphid species. Wild radish and wild cabbage serve as natural reservoirs for the virus. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for CaMV. Found in most countries where Brassicas grown. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of CaMV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cercospora armoraciae Fungus Not a host 10-165, 10-260, 10-295, 10-348 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of C. armoraciae. There have been limited reports of C. armoraciae on horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. armoraciae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cercospora brassicicola Fungus No 10-12, 10-134, 10-148, 10-149, 10-326 C. brassicicola is the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of B. oleracea. There are several sources that suggest that seed is a pathway, however, no references found with data that provides evidence that seed is a pathway. Seed is a pathway for some other Cercospora pathogens in other crops (e.g. Cercopora betae). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. brassicicola on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Ceutorhynchus obstrictus Synonym: Ceutorhynchus assimilis Insect No 10-175, 10-327, 10-328 B. oleracea is a host of the cabbage seedpod weevil. The larvae undergo three instars in the seed pod. After the final instar the mature larvae chew an exit hole and drop to the ground to pupate in the soil. No references found indicating seed as a pathway. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. obstrictus on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cladosporium cucumerinum Fungus Not a host 10-44, 10-349 C. cucumerinum is the causal agent of scab/gummosis of cucurbits. No references found indicating Brassica oleracea is a host of C. cucumerinum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. cucumerinum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cladosporium herbarum Fungus Not a host 10-165, 10-221, 10-350 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of C. herbarum. Older literature suggests that C. herbarum may be associated with seed of B. napus and B. campestris. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. herbarum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cladosporium spp. Fungus Not a host 10-65, 10-165, 10-227 References found indicating B. oleracea as a host of Cladosporium spp. are very limited and do not provide any data to support the claims. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Cladosporium spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cochliobolus sativus Fungus Not a host 10-73, 10-191, 10-351 No references found indicating Brassica spp. are hosts of C. sativus. Primarily found on cereals, grains and other members of Poaceae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. sativus on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Colletotrichum destructivum Fungus Not a host 10-34, 10-154, 10-155, 10-157, 10-159, 10-336, 10-352 The primary hosts of C. destructivum are alfalfa and clover. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of C. destructivum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. destructivum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Colletotrichum spp. Fungus Not a host 10-165, 10-342 There are many species of Colletotrichum, however, the only reports indicating Colletotrichum on B. oleracea is C. higginsianum-see entry for this species for further information. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Colletotrichum spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Cucumber mosaic virus Virus No 10-36, 10-123, 10-165, 10-197, 10-338 Brassica oleracea is considered a minor host of CMV and infection only gives rise to mild symptoms. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for CMV in B. oleracea. CMV has a very wide host range and seed may be a pathway in some hosts. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of CMV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Curvularia spp. Fungus Not a host 10-97, 10-165, 10-342 No references found indicating Curvularia as a causal agent of disease on B. oleracea. There is one report of an association of Cuvularia sp. with seed of a mix of unknown cultivars of cauliflower collected from fields in Pakistan. However, Koch's postulates were not completed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Curvularia spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Ditylenchus dipsaci Nematode No 10-37, 10-165, 10-204 B. oleracea can be a host of the stem and bulb nematode (D. dipsaci). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. dipsaci on B. oleracea. The nematode can become attached to the seeds of some host plants (e.g. onions, lucerne, faba beans) Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. dipsaci on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Frankliniella spp. Insect No 10-15, 10-24, 10-25, 10-302 B. oleracea is a secondary host of Frankliniella thrips, usually only attacking the crop when primary hosts die off. No references found indicating seeds as a pathway for any species of the genus Frankliniella. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Franliniella spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Fusarium moniliforme Fungus Not a host 10-40, 10-165, 10-174, 10-342, 10-353 F. moniliforme is not reported as a causal agent of disease on B. oleracea. One report found an association of F. moniliforme with cauliflower and cabbage seed. However, the seed sources were not identified, fungal identification was not confirmed and Koch's postulates were not completed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. moniliforme on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Fungus No 10-88, 10-92, 10-158, 10-161, 10-165, 10-228, 10-281 No references found clearly indicating seed as a pathway for F. oxysporum f sp conglutinans in B. oleracea. There are several inferences made that seed might be a pathway at low levels, however, these statements are derived from one dated reference that has no data to support these statements. The industry is not aware of seed as a pathway in B. oleracea. Commercial harvesting (only seed from healthy plants), cleaning and sanitization would limit the chance for seed being contaminated. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. o. f. sp. conglutinans on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Fusarium oxysporum (complex) Fungus Not a host 10-52, 10-165, 10-228, 10-354 No information given because the forma specialis of F. oxysporum has not been specified. See F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans for the most common Fusarium found on B. oleracea.
Brassica spp. Brassica Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani Fungus Not a host 10-88, 10-144, 10-165, 10-228, 10-239 F. o. raphani is normally found on radish and daikon. Only one report indicates infection on B. oleracea when experimentally inoculated. No other references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of F. o. raphani. Some evidence that seed may be a pathway at low levels in radish. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Fusarium semitectum Synonym: Fusarium incarnatum Fungus Not a host 10-165, 10-342, 10-355 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of F. semitectum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. semitectum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Fusarium solani Fungus Not a host 10-92, 10-165, 10-231, 10-263, 10-356 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of Fusarium solani. Fusarium solani is referred to as a species complex (FSSC) containing several forma specialis designations. See F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans for information regarding the most common species of Fusarium found on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. solani on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Gibberella avenacea Synonym: Fusarium avenaceum Fungus No 10-264, 10-265, 10-266, 10-357 The fungus is a ubiquitous soil borne pathogen. G. avenacea is reported to be the causal agent of an occassional head rot of stored cabbage and broccoli. One report of a head rot occurring in the field. No reports found of seed being a pathway for G. avenacea in B. oleracea. It can be seedborne in grains and clover. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of G. avenacea on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Helicoverpa zea Insect No 10-176, 10-177, 10-330 This insect, commonly known as the corn earworm, has a wide host range. Cabbage and some other Brassicas are secondary or poor hosts. Pupae form in the soil. If present, commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of B. oleracea seed should reduce the threat of the insect being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of H. zea on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Helix aspersa Synonym: Cornu aspersum Insect No 10-136, 10-291, 10-303 The garden snail can be associated with plants of B. oleracea. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for H. aspersa in B. oleracea. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization would eliminate the presence of the pest. This mollusc can be transported long distances on plant material. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Helix aspersa on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Helix spp. Insect No 10-136, 10-291, 10-303, 10-329 Other species of Helix are more limited in distribution than H. apsersa but they may be associated with plants of B. oleracea. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Helix spp. on B. oleracea. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization would eliminate the presence of the pest. This mollusc can be transported long distances on plant material. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Helix spp on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Heterodera cruciferae Nematode No 10-165, 10-252, 10-253, 10-254, 10-255 This is a cyst forming nematode that feeds on Brassica crops. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for H. cruciferae on B. oleracea. Nematode movement is primarily passive: soil, water, tools, etc. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would remove the threat of cyst contaminanted soil being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of H. cruciferae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Heterodera glycines Nematode No 10-165, 10-247, 10-248, 10-249, 10-250, 10-251, 10-316, 10-320, 10-321 This is a cyst forming nematode whose primary host is Glycine max (soybean). Only one report found indicating this nematode was found on Brassica napus subsp oleifera. The cyst nematodes commonly found on B. oleracea are H. cruciferae and H. schachtii. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for H. glycines on B. oleracea. Nematode movement is primarily passive: soil, water, tools, etc. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would remove the threat of cyst contaminated soil being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of H. cruciferae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Heterodera schachtii Nematode No 10-50, 10-119, 10-165, 10-247 B. oleracea can be a host of the cyst nematode (H. schachtii). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for H. schachtii in B. oleracea. Contaminated soil associated with seed could be a means for dispersal, however, commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for debris and dead plant tissue to be associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. dipsaci on H. schachtii on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Lettuce Mosaic Virus (LMV) Virus Not a host 10-165, 10-289, 10-304 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of LMV. Cabbage described as a non-host species. Only information on a member of the Brassica family as a host is Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Seed as pathway only described for lettuce. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of LMV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Listronotus bonariensis Insect No 10-21, 10-124 The Argentine stem weevil is most commonly found in fields and seed of cereals. The insect has been found on B. oleracea although it is not common. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for L. bonariensis on B. oleracea. Incidental report of an association with rape seed, however, it was considered unimportant on the crop. Distribution is limited to South America, Australia and New Zealand. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of L. bonariensis on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Longidorus elongatus Nematode Not a host 10-257, 10-282, 10-283, 10-305 L. elongatus is an ectoparasitic nematode living on the outer surface of host roots. It is widely distributed throughout temperate regions. It can vector of Raspberry ringspot virus and Tomato black ring virus. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of L. elongatus. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of L. elongatus on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Longidorus spp. Nematode Not a host 10-257, 10-275 This is a genus of ectoparasitic nematodes. Nematode movement is primarily passive: soil, water, tools, etc. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of Longidorus spp. Some other species of Brassica have been reported as host of Longidorus spp. however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Longidorus spp. in those species. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Longidorus spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Macrophomina phaseolina Fungus Not a host 10-45, 10-165, 10-240, 10-241, 10-358 No references found indicating B. oleracea is a host of M. phaseolina. There are some dated reports of M. phaseolina being found occassionally on other species of Brassica. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. phaseolina on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Meloidogyne spp. Nematode No 10-165, 10-246, 10-268, 10-272 B. oleracea is a host of root-knot nematodes including M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. incognita acrita and M. javanica. The Dutch PPO PRA on Meloidogyne minor clearly states that this genera of nematodes are not associated with seed. In addition, no reports have been found of seed being a pathway for Meloidogyne spp. on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Meloidogyne spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Nacobbus aberrans Synonym: Nacobbus batatiformis Nematode No 10-245, 10-246 N. aberrans is known as the false root knot nematode. This nematode has been reported on B. oleracea. It is similar to Meloidogyne in that it cause knots on the roots and its growth is limited to the root zone. No references indicating seed as a pathway for N. aberrans on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of N. aberrans on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Paratrichodorus spp. Nematode Not a host 10-235, 10-238, 10-257 B. oleracea is a host of Paratrichodorus, the most common being P. minor. Very closely related to Trichodorus spp. This nematode is found worldwide. It attacks the root zone and decreases root growth. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Paratrichodorus spp. on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Paratrichodorus spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Penicillium chrysogenum Fungus Not a host 10-1, 10-360 Only one report found indicating P. chrysogenum associated with B. oleracea seed. This was a crude survey of fungal seed contamination. The sources of the seed are not defined and Koch's postulates were not completed. No references found indicating P. chrysogenum as a causal agent of disease on B. oleracea. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would remove superficial contaminants. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. chrysogenum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Penicillium funiculosum Fungus Not a host 10-1, 10-361 Only one report found indicating P. funiculosum associated with B. oleracea seed. This was a crude survey of fungal seed contamination. The sources of the seed are not defined and Koch's postulates were not completed. No references found indicating P. funiculosum as a causal agent of a disease on B. oleracea. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would remove superficial contaminants. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. funiculosum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Phyllosticta zingiberis Synonym: Phoma zingiberis Fungus Not a host 10-192, 10-203 Causal agent of leaf spot of ginger, the primary host. No references found indicating Brassica spp. as a host of P. zingiberis. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. zingiberis on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Phyllotreta cruciferae Insect No 10-198, 10-339 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for the crucifer flea beetle on crucifers. Egg laden soil could be associated with seed, however, commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for egg laden soil being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. cruciferae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Physalospora rhodina Anamorph: Lasiodioplodia theobromae Fungus Not a host 10-229, 10-230, 10-231, 10-363 P. rhodina is a pathogen of tree crops such as citrus, fig, rubber tree, Prunus spp., and others. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of P. rhodina. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. rhodina on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Phytophthora brassicae Synonym: Phytophthora porri Oomycete No 10-92, 10-206, 10-207, 10-364 P. brassicae is the causal agent of Phytophthora Storage Rot of crucifers. The pathogen survives in the soil as either oospores or chlamydospores. No references found indicating seed as a pathway. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. brassicae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Phytophthora megasperma Oomycete No 10-92, 10-165, 10-208, 10-365 P. megasperma is the causal agent of Phytophthora Root Rot on crucifers. Survives in soil as oospores. No references found indicating seed as a pathway. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. megasperma on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Phytophthora sojae Oomycete Not a host 10-118, 10-301, 10-366 The host range of P. sojae is limited to soybean (Glycine max) and closely related plants. No references found indicating that Brassica oleracea is a host of P. sojae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. sojae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Plasmodiophora brassicae Fungus No 10-22, 10-48, 10-165, 10-236, 10-237 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. brassicae in B. oleracea. One report on B. napus indicated an association of resting spores with seed that had not been commerically cleaned. However, the levels detected were below those need to cause disease in a bioassay. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization would reduce the risk of contamination of the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. brassicae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pleospora herbarum Anamorph: Stemphylium herbarum Fungus Not a host 10-165, 10-294, 10-295, 10-342, 10-368 Brassica oleracea is not known to be a host of Pleospora herbarum. There are very limited reports of this fungus on brassicas and the most detailed is on radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). The occurrence is incidental and Koch's postulates were not completed. Therefore, it is concluded that B. oleracea is not a host of this fungus. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Pleospora herbarum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pleospora tarda Anamorph: Stemphylium botryosum Fungus Pathway not proven 10-173, 10-367 The anamorph of P. tarda, Stemphylium botryosum, has been reported to occur on B. oleracea, however, it is not a common disease problem. One very dated reference reported the fungus was found on the seed of B. napo, B. oleracea, B. rapa, and Raphanus sativus. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. tarda on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. tarda on B. oleracea. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for P. tarda on B. oleracea. No No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudocercosporella capsellae Teleomorph: Mycosphaerella capsellae Fungus No 10-92, 10-162, 10-163, 10-164, 10-165, 10-369 Both the anamorph and teleomorph of the fungus are causal agents of White Leaf Spot of crucifers. One reference indicates seed was not a pathway under experimental conditions. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. capsellae in B. oleracea. This pathogen has been found on seed in the pod on B napus but, transmission rarely occurs. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. capsellae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pythium aphanidermatum Oomycete No 10-52, 10-165, 10-219, 10-220, 10-371 P. aphanidermatum is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen. On B. oleracea it is considered a minor pathogen. No references found indicating seed as pathway for P. aphanidermatum on B. oleracea. One reference implies seed as a pathway on B. napus but no data is presented. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. aphanidermatum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pythium irregulare Oomycete No 10-78, 10-193, 10-194, 10-372 P. irregulare is not commonly found on B. oleracea but it has been reported. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. irregulare in B. oleracea. P. irregulare is a ubiquitous soil-borne fungus. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. irregulare on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pythium spp. Fungus No B. oleracea is a host of various species of Pythium (see other Pythium entries). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Pythium spp. in B. oleracea. Primary source of inoculum is oospores in soil or dead root tissue. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Pythium spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pythium tracheiphilum Oomycete No 10-13, 10-171, 10-172 This fungus is not commonly found on Brassicas. There is one report of it causing a leaf and head rot on chinese cabbage. Pathogenic on cauliflower tested in vitro. No references found indicating seed as a pathway in Brassicas. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. tracheiphilum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pythium ultimum Oomycete No 10-76, 10-165, 10-215, 10-373 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. ultimum in B. oleracea. Primary source of inoculum is oospores in soil or dead root tissue. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. ultimum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) Synonym: Radish enation mosaic virus Virus No 10-34, 10-96, 10-165, 10-184, 10-185, 10-186 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for RaMV. Transmitted by vectors (several beetle species), by mechanical inoculation and by grafting. Seed transmission experiments unsuccessful. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of RaMV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Radopholus similis Nematode No 10-209, 10-214, 10-256, 10-293, 10-311 R. similis is a burrowing nematode that is common in tropical and subtropical regions and is most common on banana. It is an endophyte of the roots only. It can attack B. oleracea, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. similis in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. similis on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Ramularia armoraciae Fungus Not a host 10-205, 10-260, 10-374 R. armoraciae is the causal agent of a leaf spot of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of R. armoraciae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. armoraciae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Fungus Yes 10-22, 10-48, 10-92, 10-165, 10-271, 10-315, 10-337 Seed lots can be contaminated with sclerotia and dormant mycelium. Seed is a known pathway for S. sclerotiorum in B. oleracea and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed lots by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Incubation, Dry-seed inspection 10-23, 10-270 A sample of seed could be visually inspected for sclerotia associated with the seed. A seed test is commercially available. Yes Biopesticide (seed coating) 10-66 One reference has experimental use of bioagents. In addition, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Sclerotinia spp. Fungus Not a host The species of Sclerotinia associated with B. oleracea is S. sclerotiorum. See that entry for details.
Brassica spp. Brassica Septoria apiicola Fungus Not a host 10-5, 10-92, 10-165, 10-342, 10-375 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of S apiicola. The host range of this fungus is primarily in the Apiaciae. Only one reference found indicating infection in the Brassicaceae (Raphanus sativus). Isolations were made from locally grown seed and Koch's postulates were not completed. Therefore, this report is discounted. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. apiicola on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Spodoptera littoralis Insect No 10-196, 10-199, 10-202, 10-242 B. oleracea is a host of the Egyptian cottonworm. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. littoralis on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. littoralis on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Streptomyces scabies Fungus No 10-188, 10-189, 10-190, 10-376 S. scabies has been reported on some species of Brassica, however, it is not commonly reported on B. oleracea. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. scabies in B oleracea. The pathogen is limited to underground plant parts. No evidence of systemic infection. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. scabies on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Thanatephorus cucumeris Synonym: Rhizoctonia solani Fungus Pathway not proven 10-111, 10-112, 10-165 A very common soil borne pathogen with a great diversity of host plants. Some references state seed can be a pathway, however, no data is presented to support these statements. A quality systems approach in the production of the seed through field inspections, routine cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for sclerotia being associated with the seed. No No references found, however, a sample of seed could be visually inspected for sclerotia associated with the seed. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating), Biopesticide (seed coating and seed treatment) 10-11, 10-17, 10-19, 10-35, 10-55 Various treatments have been described. In addition, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Theba pisana Synonym: Helix pisana Insect No 10-296, 10-297 T. pisana is known as the garden white snail which can be associated with plants of B. oleracea but there are no references indicating seed as a pathway for T. pisana in B. oleracea. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would eliminate the presence of the pest. This mollusc can be transported long distances on plant material. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of T. pisana on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Virus No 10-183, 10-187, 10-273, 10-274 TRV is not commonly known as a serious problem on B. oleracea, although it can be a host. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for TRV on B. oleracea. One very dated reference shows seed transmission in Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's purse) at a very low rate, however, this is only under experimental conditions. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Tobacco Rattle Virus on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) Virus Not a host 10-92, 10-109, 10-165, 10-201 TBRV is not known to infect B. oleracea. One dated report suggests that cabbage might have been susceptible when inoculated. No other references found indicating that B. oleracea is a host of TBRV. Given this information, B. oleracea is considered not a host. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TBRV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Trichodorus spp. Nematode No 10-165, 10-181, 10-257, 10-292 The stubby root nematode has been reported to occur on B. oleracea, however, it is not common. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Trichodorus spp. in B. oleracea. The nematode can vector Tobacco Rattle Virus. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Trichodorus spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) Virus No 10-3, 10-57, 10-75, 10-92, 10-122, 10-165, 10-280 B. oleracea is a host of TuMV which is primarily aphid transmitted. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for TuMV in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TuMV on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Verticillium albo-atrum Fungus Not a host 10-82, 10-100, 10-165, 10-178, 10-217, 10-218, 10-377 The causal agents of Verticillium Wilt of B. oleracea are V. dahliae and V. longisporum. There is only one very dated report of V. albo-atrum occurring on B. oleracea and the information is very limited. No other references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of V. albo-atrum. Given this information, B. oleracea is considered not a host. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of V. albo-atrum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xiphinema diversicaudatum Nematode No 10-150, 10-165, 10-170, 10-257, 10-292 The dagger nematode has been reported to occur on B. oleracea, however, it is not common. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for X. diversicaudatum on B. oleracea. This is an ectoparasitic nemtode that lives primarily on outer surface of host roots. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. diversicaudatum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xiphinema  spp. Nematode No 10-139, 10-165, 10-257, 10-292 The dagger nematode has been reported to occur on B. oleracea, however, it is not common. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Xiphinema spp. on B. oleracea. This is an ectoparasitic nemtode that lives primarily on outer surface of host roots. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Xiphinema spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Agrobacterium tumefaciens Synonym: Rhizobium radiobacter Bacterium No 10-127, 10-137 B. oleracea can be a host of A. tumefasciens which is the causal agent of crown gall. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. tumefaciens in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. tumefaciens on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Corynebacterium betae Synonym: Curtobacterium flaccumfasciens pv. betae Bacterium Not a host 10-259, 10-281 C. betae is the causal agent of silvering disease in sugar beets and red beets. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of Corynebacterium betae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. betae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Erwinia chrysanthemi Synonym: Dickeya chrysanthemi Bacterium Not a host 10-42, 10-261, 10-262 B. oleracea is not commonly known to be a host of E. chrysanthemi. Some sources list Brassicas as a host of this bacterium, however, no specific references were found indicating Brassica oleracea as a host of E. chrysanthemi. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of E. chrysanthemi on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas cichorii Bacterium No 10-61, 10-88, 10-213, 10-226, 10-276, 10-277, 10-278 B. oleracea is not a common host of P. cichorii. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. cichorii in B. oleracea. P. cichorii is pathogenic on a number of vegetables and most notably on lettuce and basil. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. cichorii on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis Bacterium No 10-165, 10-224, 10-225, 10-226 Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis is the causal agent of head rot of brassicas, marginal leaf spot of lettuce and infects a number of other vegetables. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. marginalis pv. marginalis in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. marginalis pv. marginalis on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis Bacterium No 10-92, 10-117, 10-284 Causal agent of bacterial blight. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. s. pv. alisalensis in B. oleracea. Some authors imply and suggest that seed might be involved, however, no evidence is presented. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. s. pv. alisalensis on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata Bacterium Not a host 10-92, 10-165, 10-222, 10-223, 10-340, 10-341 This bacterium is a pathogen of sugar beet, some other vegetables and some cereals. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of Pseudomonas syringae pv aptata. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. s. pv. aptata on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas syringae pv. spec. Bacterium Not a host 10-79, 10-165, 10-342 No references found of B. oleracea being a host of P. syringae pv spec. Could find no validation of the bacterial name. Only one report on Camelina sativa (false flax). Inoculation of other brassicas did not result in infection. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. spec on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Bacterium Not a host 10-92, 10-165, 10-200, 10-342 No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of P.syringae pv syringae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. s. pv. syringae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas viridiflava Bacterium No 10-56, 10-92, 10-287, 10-288, 10-342 P. viridiflava has been reported as the causal agent of a head rot in B. oleracea. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. viridiflava on B. oleracea. One dated reference found an association of P. viridiflava on one seed lot of radish (Raphanus sativa), however, the origin, history and handling of the seed lot was unclear and transmission not demonstrated. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. viridiflava on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Rhodococcus fascians Bacterium No 10-210, 10-211, 10-212, 10-213, 10-313 R. fascians is the causal agent of leafy gall in a wide range of hosts including some members of B. oleracea. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. fascians in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. fascians on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xanthomonas campestris pv. armoraciae Bacterium Yes 10-8, 10-69, 10-306, 10-307, 10-324, 10-325 This pathovar is the causal agent of Xanthomonas leaf spot. It is very closely related to X. campestris pv campestris. The disease is more important on horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) but does occur on B. oleracea. Seed is a known pathway for Xanthomonas campestris pv armoraciae in B. oleracea and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed lots by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Researchers do not fully support this pathotype. Some of the isolates fit the species X. campestris pv. raphani while other isolates fit one of the races of X. c. pv. campestris. Yes Serological, Incubation, Seed wash, DNA/RNA based 10-8, 10-9, 10-14, 10-56, 10-68, 10-89, 10-90, 10-101, 10-102, 10-105, 10-106, 10-115, 10-269, 10-270 There are several methods described for detection of Xca on B. oleracea seed. A seed test method using dilution plating is commercially available Yes Physical 10-16, 10-86, 10-87, 10-93, 10-98 Various treatments have been described. Seed treatments are commercially available.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Bacterium Yes 10-71, 10-92, 10-103, 10-104, 10-309, 10-310 Seed is a known pathway for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in B. oleracea and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed lots by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Serological, Incubation, Seed wash, DNA/RNA based 10-8, 10-9, 10-14, 10-56, 10-68, 10-89, 10-90, 10-101, 10-102, 10-105, 10-106, 10-115, 10-269, 10-270 There are several methods described for detection of Xcc on B. oleracea seed. A seed test method using dilution plating is commercially available Yes Physical 10-16, 10-86, 10-87, 10-93, 10-98 Various treatments have been described. Seed treatments are commercially available.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani Bacterium Yes 10-306, 10-310, 10-325 This pathovar is most common on radish (Raphanus sativus) but also occurs on B. oleracea.The bacterium has a wider host range that includes the family Solanaceae. Causes leaf spotting and seed is a pathway for Xanthomonas campestris pv raphanus in B. oleracea and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed lots by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. There have been discussions questioning if X.c pv. raphani should be a distinct pathovar or perhaps a distinct race within X. campestris pv. campestris. Yes Serological, Incubation, Seed wash, DNA/RNA based 10-8, 10-9, 10-14, 10-56, 10-68, 10-89, 10-90, 10-101, 10-102, 10-105, 10-106, 10-115, 10-269, 10-270 There are several methods described for detection of Xcc on B. oleracea seed. A seed test method using dilution plating is commercially available Yes Physical 10-16, 10-86, 10-87, 10-93, 10-98 Various treatments have been described. Seed treatments are commercially available.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Synonym: Xanthomonas vesicatoria Bacterium Not a host 10-74, 10-195 X. c. pv. vesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper. No reports found indicating Brassica oleracea is a host of X. campestris pv vesicatoria. An earlier report of X. c. pv. vesicatoria of Brassicaceae and Solanaceae has been reclassified to X. c. pv. raphani. See X. campestris pv campestris entry. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. c. pv. vesicatoria on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Xanthomonas cucurbitae Synonym: Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae Bacterium Not a host 10-72, 10-298, 10-299, 10-300 Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae (preferred name) is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of most cucurbits and the host range is limited to cucurbits. No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of X. cucurbitae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. cucurbitae on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Leptosphaeria maculans Anamorph: Phoma lingam Fungus Yes 10-4, 10-92, 10-165, 10-232, 10-233 Seed is a known pathway for L. maculans in B. oleracea and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed lots by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Incubation, DNA/RNA based 10-31, 10-83, 10-115, 10-270, 10-279 A validated ISTA and NSHS incubation method does exist and seed tests are commerciallly available. A DNA method is described for detection in canola. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 10-7, 10-28, 10-30 Chemical and physical treatments are effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Trogoderma granarium Insect Not a host 10-27, 10-38, 10-39, 10-59, 10-62, 10-67, 10-381, 10-382, 10-383 No references found indicating that B. oleracea can be affected by T. granarium or that B. oleracea is a host. T. granarium, commonly known as the Khapra beetle, is usually associated with grains and cereals. Most damage occurs in storage warehouses. Even in grains and cereals, eggs are not laid inside the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of T. granarium on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Trogoderma spp. Insect Not a host 10-27, 10-38, 10-39, 10-59, 10-62, 10-67 No references found indicating that B. oleracea can be affected by T. granarium or that B. oleracea is a host. T. granarium, commonly known as the Khapra beetle, is usually associated with grains and cereals. Most damage occurs in storage warehouses. Even in grains and cereals, eggs are not laid inside the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of T. granarium on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pratylenchus spp. Nematode No 10-165, 10-216, 10-257 B. oleracea can be a host of certain species of Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes), the most common being Pratylenchus penetrans. It is distributed worldwide. The nematode is associated with the root zone and causes lesions on the root cortex. In later stage infections it may enter the vascular tissue, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Pratylenchus spp. on B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Pratylenchus spp. on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Phomopsis vexans Synonym: Phoma solani; Teleomorph: Diaporthe vexans Fungus Not a host 10-46, 10-322, 10-323, 10-362 Host range of P. vexans is limited primarily to Solanum melongena (eggplant). No references found indicating B. oleracea as a host of P. vexans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. vexans on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola Bacterium Pathway not proven 10-4, 10-57, 10-81, 10-92, 10-113, 10-281, 10-285, 10-286 Causal agent of peppery leaf spot in crucifers. In the literature some of reports attributed to P. s. pv maculicola may have been caused by P.s. pv. alisalensis. Symptoms are very similar. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruits should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding symptomatic fruit), cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Seed wash 10-99, 10-270, 10-279 No references found describing a seed test for P. syringae pv maculicola on B. oleracea. A seed test method using dilution plating is commercially available. No No references found describing a seed treatment for P. syringae pv maculicola on B. oleracea.
Brassica spp. Brassica Alternaria brassicae Fungus Yes 10-53, 10-60, 10-64, 10-92, 10-112, 10-130, 10-133, 10-165, 10-308, 10-345 A. brassicae is one of the causal agents of black spot of crucifers. A. brassicae is more destructive on oil yielding Brassica crops. The pathogen has been reported from almost every continent on Brassica crops. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruits should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding symptomatic plants), cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation, DNA/RNA based 10-23, 10-77, 10-270, 10-279 A seed test using a blotter method is commercially available. One reference indicates a DNA based test, however, the method has not been validated completely. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating), Biopesticide (seed treatment) 10-7, 10-55, 10-70, 10-112, 10-130 Seed treatments, including physical, biological and chemical, are reported to be effective in controlling the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Alternaria brassicicola Fungus Yes 10-53, 10-60, 10-64, 10-92, 10-112, 10-125, 10-126, 10-128, 10-130, 10-165, 10-346 A. brassicicola is one of the causal agents of black spot of crucifers. Reported to be more common on vegetable crops compared to oil crops in the Brassicaceae family. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruits should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding symptomatic plants), cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation, Seed wash 10-20, 10-33, 10-43, 10-97, 10-270, 10-279 A seed test using a blotter method is commercially available. Some references indicate agar methods but these are not completely validated. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating), Biopesticide (seed coating) 10-7, 10-16, 10-20, 10-30, 10-49, 10-55, 10-70, 10-112, 10-130, 10-319 Seed treatments, including physical, biological and chemical, are reported to be effective in controlling the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Alternaria japonica Synonym: Alternaria raphani Fungus Yes 10-20, 10-33, 10-128, 10-129, 10-165 A. japonica is one of the causal agents of black spot of crucifers. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruits should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding symptomatic plants), cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No Incubation, DNA/RNA based 10-33, 10-77, 10-97, 10-135, 10-270, 10-279 A seed test using a blotter method is commercially available for related species of Alternaria. Some references indicate agar methods but not completely validated. One reference indicates a DNA based test, however, the method has not been validated completely. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating), Biopesticide (seed treatment) 10-7, 10-16, 10-70, 10-112, 10-129, 10-130, 10-319 Seed treatments, including physical, biological and chemical, are reported to be effective in controlling the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Colletotrichum higginsianum Fungus No 10-23, 10-156, 10-165 C. higginsianum is the causal agent of anthracnose B. oleracea, however, it is most common on Raphanus sativus (radish) and B. rapa (turnip). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. higginsianum in B. oleracea. Dated references only make suggestions that seed may be a pathway in radish and no data is provided. Commercial cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. higginsianum on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Albugo candida Oomycete Yes 10-22, 10-80, 10-107, 10-140, 10-141, 10-143, 10-290, 10-380 A. candida is the causal agent of white rust of crucifers and the fungus is found in most areas of the world. It is most severe on B. rapa but also occurs on B. oleracea. Oospores survive in soil and can be associated with seed. For B. rapa, it has been shown that oospores associated with seed can cause higher levels of disease in the field. However, A. candida is not known to be a threat to commercial seed lots of B. oleracea. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of B. oleracea seed would reduce the potential for oospore contamination of seed. No Incubation 10-143 There is a method outlined to count oospores in the reference cited. However, it is not a validated seed test method. No 10-142 Research has found no single management practice to be superior at controlling the disease. A combination of cultural, resistant varieties and chemical control is needed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Pyrenopeziza brassicae Anamorph: Cylindrosporium concentricum Fungus Pathway not proven 10-92, 10-165, 10-166, 10-167, 10-168, 10-169, 10-318, 10-370 P. brassicae is the causal agent of light leaf spot of crucifers. Information on seed as a pathway is based primarily on experimental inoculation of plants. Seed harvested from these plants were infected with the fungus and in one reference transmission to seedlings did occur. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. brassicae in B oleracea. A quality systems approach in the production of the seed through field inspections would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Routine cleaning and sanitization of the seed would reduce the risk of this organism being associated with the seed. No Incubation 10-166 Only experimental information available, surface sterilized seed placed on sterile blotter paper to dry before placing on PDA and incubated at 18ºC No 10-10, 10-318 Treatments mentioned in the literature are field foliar applications to limit the disease. No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Rhizopus stolonifer Fungus Pathway not proven 10-1, 10-97, 10-342 R. stolonifer can cause a head rot of crucifers. The primary information for seed as a pathway are two references wherein local seed sources were plated onto a general agar medium or a blotter and R. stolonifer was found as a superficial contaminant. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. stolonifer on B. oleracea. Routine harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would limit the threat of this organism being associated with the seed. It was also shown that Brassica seed extract had an inhibitory effect on R. stolonifer. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. stolonifer on B. oleracea seed. No Incubation 10-45, 10-97 No references found indicating a seed test exists for R. stolonifer on B. oleracea seed. References listed describe experimental incubation methods. No No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Mycosphaerella brassicicola Fungus Pathway not proven 10-22, 10-57, 10-92, 10-165, 10-267, 10-359 Causal agent of ring spot of B. oleracea which is a cool weather disease. Some references suggest that seed may be a pathway whereas others state seed is not a pathway. No references found with data that clearly shows seed as a pathway. Crop debris is the most common source of inoculum. Seed may be a pathway if plant debris is associated with the seed. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected plants), cleaning and sanitization of brassica seed would reduce the potential for this organism to be associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for M. brassicicola on B. oleracea. Yes Physical 10-55 One reference indicates that a hot water treatment will control ring spot. A seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) Virus Pathway not proven 10-3, 10-6, 10-41, 10-75, 10-91, 10-108, 10-165 TYMV does infect B. oleracea and there are reports of seed being a pathway in other species and genera of Brassicaceae. Only one citation found indicating seed as a pathway in B. oleracea, however, the reference was inaccessible. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for TYMV in B. oleracea. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No Grow-out, Serological 10-41 No references found indicating a seed test exists for TYMV in B. oleracea. Experimental evaluation using a combination of grow out and ELISA is described for detection of TYMV in B. napus. No No references found describing a seed treatment for TYMV on B. oleracea.
Brassica spp. Brassica Verticillium dahliae Fungus Pathway not proven 10-57, 10-92, 10-100, 10-165, 10-178, 10-217, 10-218, 10-317, 10-378 Verticillium longisporum is the primary causal agent of Verticillium Wilt of B. oleracea, however, V. dahliae can infect B. oleracea. The role of V. dahliae is not entirely clear. Some references state seed as a pathway for V. dahliae in B. oleracea but no data is presented. See Verticillium longisporum entry. Experimental inoculation on B. napus found no trace of the fungus in seeds. A quality systems approach in the production of the seed through field inspections, cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for V. dahliae on B. oleracea. No No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Verticillium longisporum Fungus Pathway not proven 10-92, 10-100, 10-165, 10-178, 10-217, 10-218, 10-317, 10-379 V. longisporum is the primary causal agent of Verticillium Wilt on B. oleracea. Some references state that seed is a pathway for V. longisporum in B. oleracea but no data is presented. A quality systems approach in the production of the seed through field inspections, cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for V. longisporum on B. oleracea. No No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Hyaloperonospora parasitica Synonym: Peronospora parasitica Fungus Pathway not proven 10-2, 10-84, 10-110, 10-165, 10-234 H. peronospora is the causal agent of Downy Mildew of B. oleracea. There are conflicting reports on whether seed is a pathway for this fungus in B. oleracea. It has been suggested that oospores may be associated with seed, however, this has not been verified under natural conditions. Seed as a pathway has been shown for some other members of the Brassica family. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and the normal harvesting, cleaning and sanitization of seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No Grow-out 10-2, 10-84, 10-110 No references found indicating a seed test exists for H. parasicita on B. oleracea.There are some experimental methods used to evaluate radish seed for the fungus. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 10-85, 10-116 Two references found indicating seed treatments may be effective after emergence. In addition, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Brassica spp. Brassica Aster Yellows Synonym: Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris Phytoplasma No 10-18, 10-92, 10-151, 10-152, 10-153, 10-165, 10-269, 10-384, 10-385 Aster Yellows phytoplasma is transmitted by a variety of polyphagous leafhopper species and has a wide range of plant hosts. One reference detected DNA in the tissue of seed and seedlings of B. rapa, however, the phytoplasma was not detected. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Aster Yellows in B. oleracea. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Aster Yellows on B. oleracea seed.
Brassica spp. Brassica Alternaria alternata Synonym: Alternaria tenuis Fungus Pathway not proven 10-32, 10-33, 10-64, 10-97, 10-128, 10-130, 10-131 The most common species of Alternaria associated with B. oleracea are A. brassicicola, A. brassicae and A. japonica. There are reports of A. alternata found associated with B. oleracea, however, these were considered opportunistic situations. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruits should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding symptomatic plants), cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No Incubation 10-270, 10-279 There is no validated method specifically for A. alternata on B. oleracae, however, there are commercially available seed tests for other species of Alternaria on B. oleracea. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating), Biopesticide (seed treatment) 10-55, 10-130 Seed treatments are reported to be effective in controlling the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Athelia rolfsii Anamorph: Sclerotium rolfsii Fungus No 1-23, 1-40, 1-73 Pepper is a host, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. rolfsii in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. rolfsii on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Corcyra cephalonica Insect No 1-158, 1-159, 1-160 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for the rice meal moth on pepper. This insect is associated with rice, corn, soybean and other grains. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts are sometimes used to control the insect. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. cephalonica on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Dacus spp. Insect No 1-77 Fruit flies can cause injury to pepper fruit, however no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Dacus spp. in pepper. Dispersal occurs when the insect is associated with fresh fruit. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of these insects being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Dacus spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Diaprepes abbreviatus Insect No 1-195, 1-196 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for the citrus weevil on pepper. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of this insect being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. abbreviatus on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Ditylenchus destructor Nematode No 1-79, 1-169 Pepper is a very minor host of the potato rot nematode. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. destructor in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. destructor on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Ditylenchus dipsaci Nematode No 1-79, 1-168 Pepper is a very minor host of the stem and bulb nematode. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. dipsaci in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. dipsaci on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Frankliniella spp. Insect No 1-194, 1-199 Thrips can cause injury to peppers, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Frankliniella spp. in pepper. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of thrips being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Frankliniella spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Gonocephalum spp. Insect No 1-161, 1-162 Wireworms can be a pest of the lower stems of peppers. The insect is usually found in the soil. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Gonocephalum spp. on pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Gonocephalum spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Helicoverpa assulta Insect No 1-163, 1-164 The oriental tobacco budworm can feed on pepper fruits. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for H. assulta on pepper. The cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed should remove the threat of this insect being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of H. assulta on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Helicoverpa zea Insect No 1-165 The corn earworm can feed on pepper fruits. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for H. zea on pepper. The cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed should remove the threat of this insect being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of H. zea on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Longidorus spp. Nematode No 1-183 This nematode has been reported on pepper plants, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Longidorus spp. on peppers or other hosts. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Longidorus spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudocercospora fuligena Synonym: Cercospora fuligena Fungus No 1-83 Pepper as a host has only been shown experimentally. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. fuligena in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. fuligena on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Liriomyza trifolii Insect No 1-181, 1-182 Pepper is not reported as a common host of the American serpentine leafminer and no references found indicating seed as a pathway for L. trifolii on peppers or any other hosts. Leaf miners are easily transported with plant material such as cut flowers, branches with foliage and leafy vegetables. Seed is not known as one of the plant materials for spread of leaf miners. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of L. trifolii on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Macrophomina phaseolina Fungus No 1-145, 1-148 M. phaseolina is the causal agent of charcoal rot of pepper. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for M. phaseolina in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in some crops such as soybean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. phaseolina on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Meloidogyne spp. Nematode No 1-154 The PRA prepared by the Dutch Plant Protection Office on Meloidogyne minor clearly states that this genera of nematodes are not associated with seed. In addition, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for this genus of nematodes in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Meloidogyne spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Nacobbus aberrans Nematode No 1-184 Pepper is a host of the false root-knot nematode. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for N. aberrans on peppers or other hosts. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of N. aberrans on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pepper mild mosaic virus (PMMsV) Virus No 1-121 The designation PMMsV is taken from the website reference.This is a Potyvirus and even though the name is similar, it has no relation to Tobamovirus pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV). Limited reports of this potyvirus. This virus name Pepper mild mosaic virus is not recognized by the American Phytopathological Society (APS), the CABI Crop Compendium (CPC), the Association of Applied Biologists (AAB-DPV website) or The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for PMMsV in peppers. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of PMMsV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora capsici Oomycete No 1-40 P. capsici is the causal agent of Phytophthora blight on peppers. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. capsici in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. capsici on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora cryptogea Oomycete No 1-40, 1-97, 1-132, 1-145 Pepper is published as a host of P. cryptogea, however, the relevance of the publication is doubtful. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. cryptogea in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. cryptogea on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Potato virus A (PVA) Virus No 1-40, 1-209 Pepper as a host of PVA is limited. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for PVA in any crop. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of PVA on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas corrugata Bacterium No 1-29, 1-93, 1-203 Pepper is a limited host, however, it can occur, especially when infected tomatoes are nearby. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. corrugata in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. corrugata on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Bacterium No 1-18, 1-40, 1-43, 1-94, 1-95, 1-239 Pepper is reported as a host and some references found that suggest or state that seed can be a pathway for P. syringae pv. syringae in pepper. However, these references have no scientific data to support these statements. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. syringae pv. syringae in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in beans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. syringae on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Thaumatotibia leucotreta Synonym: Cryptophlebia leucotreta Insect No 1-149, 1-150 The false codling moth is a pest of pepper. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for T. leucotreta in pepper. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of this insect being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of T. leucotreta on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas viridiflava Bacterium No 1-31, 1-59, 1-93, 1-96, 1-167 This bacterium has been reported to cause a leaf blight in peppers but no reports found indicating seed as a pathway for P. viridiflava in pepper. Seed as a pathway shown experimentally in tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. viridiflava on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xanthomonas perforans Synonym: Xanthomonas vesicatoria Bacterium Not a host 1-15, 1-26, 1-28, 1-115, 1-116 X. perforans is not pathogenic on pepper. X. perforans is one of the species of Xanthomonas that causes bacterial spot of tomato. No references found indicating pepper as a host of X. perforans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. perforans on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Rhizopus arrhizus Fungus No 1-46 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. arrhizus in pepper. The fungus can cause a post harvest decay of pepper fruit. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. arrhizus on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Rhodococcus fascians Bacterium No 1-5, 1-48, 1-241 Pepper is minor host of this bacterium. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. fascians in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. fascians on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Fungus No 1-49, 1-52, 1-53, 1-156, 1-157, 1-242 Sclerotinia on peppers (white mold) is considered a minor disease. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for S. sclerotiorum on pepper. A very common soilborne pathogen with a great diversity of host plants. Seed harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the threat of the fungus being associated with the seed. Seed can be a pathway for the fungus on soybeans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. sclerotiorium on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Spodoptera littoralis Insect No 1-197, 1-198 The Egyptian cottonworm has a very wide host range including pepper. No references were found indicating seed as a pathway for S. littoralis in pepper. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of this insect being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. littoralis on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Virus No 1-45, 1-84, 1-103, 1-185, 1-186 Pepper is a host of TRV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for TRV in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in a number of weeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TRV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Virus No 1-138, 1-190, 1-191 Pepper is a host of TRSV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for TRSV in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in soybean and weeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TRSV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tobacco streak virus (TSV) Virus No 1-16, 1-40, 1-172, 1-212, 1-246 Pepper is a host of TSV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for TSV in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in a number of crops and some weeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TSV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato aspermy virus (TAV) Virus No 1-40, 1-187, 1-192, 1-213 Pepper is a host of TAV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for TAV in pepper. Seed can be a pathway for TAV in some weeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TAV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina Synonym: Peronospora tabacina Oomycete No 1-55, 1-166 Pepper as a host of this fungus is secondary and rare. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina in pepper. Host range restricted primarily to the genus Nicotiana. Seed is not a pathway in Nicotiana. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) Virus No 1-30, 1-37, 1-103, 1-191, 1-214 Pepper is a host of TBRV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for TBRV in pepper. Some dated references indicate seed as a pathway in a number of crops and weeds. However, the data is based on experimental work and the methods used were outdated and not representative of commercial practices. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TBRV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) Virus No 1-2, 1-9, 1-13, 1-51, 1-247 TBSV is a soilborne virus with no known vectors. It is moved through water and may enter roots through wounds. Pepper can be a host but it is not a common occurrence. One dated reference cites earlier experimental work that suggests that seed may be a pathway for TBSV in tomato and pepper. However, neither of these references are accessible for review. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for TBSV in pepper. See TBSV entry in the tomato pest list for details on that crop. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TBSV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) Virus No 1-27, 1-30, 1-33, 1-44, 1-188, 1-189, 1-191 Pepper is a host of ToRSV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for ToRSV in pepper. Seed can be a pathway in soybean, raspberry, strawberry and weeds. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of ToRSV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Virus No 1-106, 1-216 Pepper is a host of TSWV, however, ho references found indicating seed as a pathway for TSWV in pepper. Seed is not a pathway for Tospoviruses. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TSWV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Verticillium dahliae Fungus No 1-108, 1-109, 1-110, 1-111, 1-112, 1-113, 1-114 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for V. dahliae in pepper. Seed transmission in tomato has been shown to be unimportant. Seed as a pathway has been shown for spinach and experimentally in lettuce. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of V. dahliae on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xiphinema spp. Nematode No 1-145, 1-170, 1-171 Pepper is a very minor host for this nematode. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Xiphinema spp. in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Xiphinema spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Didymella lycopersici Anamorph: Phoma lycopersici Fungus Pathway not proven 1-40, 1-97, 1-144, 1-145, 1-219 Tomato is the primary host of D. lycopersici in nature. Some other solanceous plants were reported to be susceptible when inoculated. One reference found indicating Didymella lycopersici caused a disease on pepper. However, fungal identification was not clear and Koch’s postulates were not completed. This reference also indicated an association of the fungus with seed of pepper, however, the methods used may have biased the data. No other reports found indicating pepper as a host of D. lycopersici or seed as a pathway for D. lycopersici in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. lycopersici on pepper seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for D. lycopersici on pepper. No No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Dickeya chrysanthemi Synonym: Erwinia chrysanthemi Bacterium Not a host 1-19, 1-40, 1-145, 1-204 No references found indicating pepper as a host of D. chrysanthemi. Pepper fruit inoculated experimentally in one report. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. chrysanthemi on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Synonym: P. s. pv. punctulans Bacterium Not a host 1-61, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. syringae pv. tomato. This bacterium is the causal agent of bacterial speck on tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. tomato on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Bactrocera spp. Common species: B. latifrons, B. facialis Insect No 1-193 Fruit flies can cause injury to pepper fruit. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Bactrocera spp. in pepper. Dispersal occurs when the insect is associated with fresh fruit. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of these insects being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Bactrocera spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alternaria brassicicola Fungus Not a host 1-22, 1-25, 1-54, 1-58, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of A. brassicicola. This fungus is a pathogen of crucifers. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. brassicicola on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phomopsis vexans Synonym: Phoma solani Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-56, 1-91, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. vexans. This fungus is the causal agent of Phomopsis blight of eggplant. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. vexans on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alternaria dauci Fungus Not a host 1-32, 1-97, 1-143, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of A. dauci. The fungus is the causal agent of Alternaria leaf blight on carrots and other umbelliferous plants. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. dauci on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alternaria raphani Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-68, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of A raphani. The fungus is pathogenic on certain crucifers. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. raphani on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Ascochyta spp. Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-69, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of Ascochyta spp. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Ascochyta spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Chilli mosaic virus Virus Not a host 1-11, 1-40, 1-139 Invalid virus name! Tthis name does not exist in the ICTV master species list (reference 1-139). Information available on the internet is inaccurate. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Chilli mosaic virus on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alternaria radicina Synonym: Stemphylium radicinum Fungus Not a host 1-97, 1-143, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of A. radicina. The fungus is the causal agent of black rot on carrots and other umbelliferous plants. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. radicina on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Colletotrichum dematium f. sp. spinaceae Synonym: Colletotrichum dematium Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of C. dematium f. sp. spinaceae. The fungus is the causal agent of anthracnose of spinach. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. dematium f. sp. spinaceae on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Colletotrichum truncatum Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of C. truncatum. The fungus is the causal agent of anthracnose of soybean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. truncatum on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Columnea latent viroid (CLVd) Viroid Not a host 1-152, 1-237, 1-238, 1-249 CLVd is a pospiviroid that is found on a number of herbaceous plants. Pepper was reported as a symptomless host only when inoculated under experimental conditions. No references found indicating pepper as a host of CLVd under natural conditions. Tomato is a known host. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of CLVd on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Ralstonia solanacearum Synonym: Pseudomonas solanacearum Bacterium No 1-40, 1-206 Pepper is a host of P. solanacearum, the causal agent of Bacterial Wilt. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. solanacearum in pepper. However, there is one dated report on Capsicum frutescens wherein the bacterium was detected epiphytically on cotyledons of seedlings grown from artificially inoculated seed or artificially inoculated soil. The bacterium is a more significant disease problem on tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. solanacearum on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Erysiphe heraclei Fungus Not a host 1-80, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of E. heraclei. The fungus is the causal agent of powdery mildew of plants in the Apiaceae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of E. heraclei on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pythium aphanidermatum Oomycete No 1-232, 1-233, 1-234, 1-235 Pythium is a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen. There is one reference that indicates an association of Pythium aphanidermatum with seed of Capsicum frutescens, a different species of Capsicum. The methods described are not indicative of commercial methods in that the seed was harvested from infected fruit from local grower fields and inadequately surface sterilized. Commercial harvesting of seed would avoid infected fruits and sanitizations would be much more effective than the techniques used in this reference. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. aphanidermatum in Capsicum annuum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. aphanidermatum on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (race III) Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-86, 1-87, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (race III). The fungus is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (race III) on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-133, 1-134, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The fungus is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of cotton and seed can be a pathway in that crop. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Lasiodiplodia theobromae Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145, 1-146, 1-147 No references found indicating pepper as a host of L. theobromae. The fungus occurs in a number of crops and seed can be a pathway certain crops such as cotton. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of L. theobromae on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Myrothecium roridum Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of M. roridum. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. roridum on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli Synonym: X. campestris pv. phaseoli Bacterium Not a host 1-40, 1-82 No references found indicating pepper as a host of X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The bacterium is the causal agent of common blight of beans. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phomopsis longicolla Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-112, 1-136, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. longicolla. The fungus is the causal agent of pod and stem blight of soybean and seed can be a pathway in that crop. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. longicolla on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora citrophthora Oomycete Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. citrophthora. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. citrophthora on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora hibernalis Oomycete Not a host 1-40 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. hibernalis. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. hibernalis on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora infestans Oomycete Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-137, 1-250, 1-251, 1-252 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. infestans. Tomato and potato are hosts. In tomato, an association with seed has been shown experimentally or with seed not processed in a commercial manner. It is not certain whether seed is a pathway in tomato. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. infestans on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Broad bean wilt virus (BBWV) Virus No 1-17, 1-100, 1-207 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for BBWV in pepper. Seed has been reported as a pathway in faba bean. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of BBWV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora megasperma Oomycete Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. megasperma. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. megasperma on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea Oomycete Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. megasperma f. sp. glycinea. The fungus is the causal agent of root rot of alfalfa (lucerne). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. megasperma f. sp. glycinea on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas mediterranea Bacterium Not a host 1-92, 1-93, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. mediterranea. The bacterium is closely related to Psudomonas corrugata. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. mediterranea on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans Bacterium Not a host 1-60, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. syringae pv. lachrymans. The bacterium is the causal agent of angular leaf spot of cucurbits. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. lachrymans on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci Bacterium Not a host 1-18, 1-40, 1-43, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. syringae pv. tabaci. The bacterium is the causal agent of wildfire of tobacco and soybeans in which seed can be a pathway. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. syringae pv. tabaci on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Puccinia allii Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of P. allii. The fungus is the causal agent of rust on some Allium spp. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. allii on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Septoria petrosellini Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of S. petrosellini. The fungus is the causal agent of Septoria blight on parsley. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of S. petrosellini on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Urocystis cepulae Fungus Not a host 1-36, 1-40, 1-97, 1-107, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of U. cepulae. The fungus is the causal agent of smut of onion and other Allium spp. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of U. cepulae on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani Bacterium Not a host 1-67, 1-119, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of X. campestris pv. raphani. The bacterium is the causal agent of leafspot of radish and certain other Brassicas. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. campestris pv. raphani on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Ceratitis capitata Insect No 1-120, 1-236 C. captiata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly, can occasionally infested pepper fruit. Dispersal occurs when the insect is associated with fresh fruit. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. capitata on pepper seed. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitation should remove the threat of this insect being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. capitata on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Fusarium avenaceum Teleomorph: Gibberella avenacea Fungus Not a host 1-40, 1-97, 1-145 No references found indicating pepper as a host of F. avenaceum. The fungus is the causal agent of a number of different diseases on different crops. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of F. avenaceum on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) (CVbMV) Both acronyms for the virus are in use Virus No 1-38, 1-40, 1-139 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for ChiVMV in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of ChiVMV on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) Virus Pathway not proven 1-3, 1-104, 1-151, 1-217, 1-253, 1-254, 1-255, 1-256 Pepper can be a weak host of TYLCV. Infected plants are symptomless and the titer of the virus is low. There is conflicting information as to the extent pepper serves as a reservoir host. TYLCV is primarily vectored by whiteflies and in general seed is not considered a pathway for Geminiviruses. Although one reference was found indicating seed as a pathway for TYLCV in pepper, this research was based on the use of experimental infectious clones which may not be representative of TYLCV in nature. In addition, the data presented in this paper is flawed in that the proper negative controls were not included. When PCR positive reactions for infected plant and seed tissue were presented, there were no corresponding tests of healthy tissue types. These deficiencies raise serious questions regarding the validity of the paper. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for TYLCV in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TYLCV on pepper seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for TYLCV on pepper. Given the serious limitations of the one reference indicating seed as a pathway for TYLCV in pepper, a seed test is NOT warranted. No No references found indicating seed treatments are effective against TYLCV on pepper.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Trogoderma spp. Common species: T. granarium, T. variabile Insect Not a host 1-200, 1-201, 1-257, 1-258, 1-259, 1-260, 1-261, 1-262, 1-263 No references found indicating C. annuum can be affected by Trogoderma spp. or that C. annuum is a host. There are many Trogoderma species, which are commonly known as dermestid beetles. These insects are storage pests of grains and cereals. Most damage occurs in storage warehouses. Even in grains and cereals, eggs are not laid inside the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Trogoderma spp. on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Synonym: Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora Bacterium Pathway not proven 1-81 P. carotovorum subsp carotovorum is the causal agent of bacterial soft of pepper fruit. One reference found indicating seed as a pathway for P. carotovorum subsp carotovorum on pepper. The bacterium was isolated from commercial seed sources, however, no history of the treatment of the seed lots was noted. Surface sterilization removed the bacterium from the seed indicating only surface contamination. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. carotovorum subsp carotovorum on pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruits should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding symptomatic fruit), cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Seed wash 1-81 Test described in publication, however, the method has not been validated. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-81 The reference indicates treatment of seed with 1% sodium hypochlorite is effective in eliminating the bacterium.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Thanatephorus cucumeris Synonym: Corticium solani, Anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani Fungus Pathway not proven 1-4, 1-23, 1-35 T. cucumeris is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen with a very diverse host range. One very dated reference found R. solani in a commercial pepper seed lot, however, the conditions under which the crop was grown were unusual: several successive pepper crops in the same ground, continuously cool and wet conditions, and the pepper fruits were in constant contact with the soil. These conditions are not typical of current commercial seed productions. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for T. cucumeris in pepper. One reference evaluated pepper seed lots for fungi and found no R. solani on the seed evaluated. The primary disease on pepper by T. cucumeris is damping off. However, seed contamination might occur through infected fruit when poorly managed productions allow fruit to come in contact with moist soil. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of only healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding contaminated fruit), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the threat of the fungus being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 1-4, 1-35 A rudimentary technique is described, however, the method has not been validated. Yes Physical, Chemical (seed coating) 1-4 One older reference indicates a hot water treatment may be effective in eliminating R. solani from the seed. A seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Fungus Yes 1-1, 1-7, 1-39, 1-40, 1-72, 1-131, 1-141, 1-142 C. gleosporioides one of the causal agents of anthracnose of pepper. The disease is not commonly seen in pepper seed production areas. If fruit is infected, seed can be a pathway for C. gleosporioides in pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 1-10, 1-20 Several methods are compared in reference 1-10. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) Virus Pathway not proven 1-8, 1-21, 1-40, 1-64, 1-65, 1-66, 1-85, 1-155, 1-202, 1-205 AMV occurs worldwide and has a very extensive host range. There is little information regarding seed as a pathway for AMV in pepper. An older reference (1-85) reports that AMV may be seedborne in pepper at a low level. Reference 1-155 is scientifically flawed and should be withdrawn from the literature. No references found clearly demonstrating seed as a pathway for AMV in pepper. Seed as a pathway is well documented in alfalfa. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for AMV on pepper. No No references found indicating a seed treatment effective against AMV on pepper.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Choanephora cucurbitarum Fungus Pathway not proven 1-70, 1-223, 1-224, 1-225 C. cucurbitarum is the causal agent of fruit wet rot and is usually found on cucurbits. Pepper fruits can be a host of this fungus. Disseminated by insects, rain and wind. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. cucurbitarum on pepper. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), seed cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. cucurbitarum on pepper seed. No No
Capsicum annuum Pepper Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Bacterium Pathway not proven 1-12, 1-40, 1-50, 1-71, 1-173, 1-174, 1-175, 1-176, 1-177, 1-178 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is the causal agent of Bacterial Canker of tomato. Pepper can be a host of the bacterium, however, it is not commonly seen in pepper seed productions. Certain references state that the bacterium is seedborne in pepper. However, the only references with data are: a) experimental inoculation of flowers and b) a field situation where the plants were severely infected and seed was harvested and checked for the bacterium. Seed would not be harvested from plants in this condition in a commercial pepper seed field. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected plants), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on pepper. No No references found indicating a seed treatment effective against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on pepper.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Virus Pathway not proven 1-40, 1-74, 1-75, 1-76 CMV is found worldwide and has a very wide host range including pepper. One reference (1-74) shows experimental data related to seed as a pathway for CMV in pepper. In this work, one cultivar of pepper was inoculated with one isolate of CMV. When grown under experimental conditions the virus was detected by RT-PCR in the seeds and seedlings grown from inoculated plants. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for CMV in pepper. Industry grow outs of commercial seed lots has not found CMV infected seedlings. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for CMV on pepper. No No references found indicating seed treatments are effective against CMV on pepper.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pepper chat fruit viroid (PCFVd) Viroid Pathway not proven 1-122, 1-179, 1-180, 1-248 PCFVd is a Pospiviroid whose known host range is limited to the Solanaceae and its distribution is also limited. One reference indicates seed as a pathway based on experimental data. However, another reference indicates seed is not a pathway based on experimental data. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for PCFVd in pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes DNA/RNA based 1-11 A seed assay using RT-PCR is commercially available. No No references found indicating a seed treatment effective against PCFVd in pepper.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) Virus Pathway not proven 1-98, 1-140, 1-210, 1-227, 1-228 TMGMV is a Tobamovirus and pepper is a host of the virus. One reference indicates seed may be a pathway in Capsicum chinense. Seed transmission occurred in seed that had been reproduced and saved by local growers in Venezuela. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for TMGMV in pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for TMGMV on pepper. There are seed tests for other Tobamoviruses on pepper. No No references found indicating a seed treatment effective against TMGMV in pepper. There are methods described for reducing the presence of other Tobamoviruses on pepper seed.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Botryotinia fuckeliana Anamorph: Botrytis cinerea Fungus Pathway not proven 1-40, 1-41, 1-129 B. cinerea is the causal agent of Botrytis gray mold on many different hosts. On pepper, the fungus is a weak pathogen that is found on damaged and dying tissue. The fungus is ubiquitous and survives in plant debris and soil. One reference found B. cinerea as a superficial contaminant on seed that had been stored up to 20 years. No other reports found indicating seed as a pathway for B. fuckeliana on pepper seed. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the threat of the fungus being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for B. fuckeliana on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Cochliobolus lunatus Anamorph: Curvularia lanata Fungus Pathway not proven 1-40, 1-82, 1-135, 1-145 C. lunatus is the causal agent of a number of diseases on cereals. Pepper is not commonly known as a host of C. lunatus. One abstract indicates that samples of local market seed has C. lunatus associated with the seed in a blotter assay. Seed as a pathway was not verified. No other references found indicating pepper as a host or seed as a pathway for C. lunatus on pepper seed. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Seed can be a pathway on sorghum, corn, soybean, grasses and other crops. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. lunatus on pepper seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for C. lunatus on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Diaporthe phaseolorum Anamorph: Phomopsis phaseoli Fungus Pathway not proven 1-78, 1-218, 1-219 D. phaseolorum is the causal agent of a number of diseases on a range of hosts. The anamorph stage of D. phaseolorum can be the causal agent of Phomopsis rot of pepper fruit, however, this disease is not a common problem in pepper seed productions. One reference indicated seed as a pathway for D. phaseolorum on pepper seed, however, the fungal identification was not clear and Koch’s postulates were not completed. This reference also indicated an association of the fungus with seed of pepper, however, the methods used may have biased the data. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), seed cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for D. phaseolorum on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alternaria alternata Fungus Pathway not proven 1-24, 1-25 A. alternata is the causal agent of Alternaria rot of pepper fruit. Alternaria is not known as a significant disease problem in pepper. Two references found indicating the fungus can be associated with seed. However, the work is limited and narrow in scope. No references found clearly demonstrating seed as a pathway for A. alternata in pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), seed cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for A. alternata on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Alternaria solani Fungus Pathway not proven 1-24, 1-25, 1-220, 1-221 A. solani is the causal agent of early blight of potato and tomato. Pepper is not an important host of A. solani and is not noted in pepper seed productions. Two references found indicating the fungus can be associated with seed. However, the work is limited and narrow in scope. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. solani in pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for A. solani on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Aspergillus flavus Fungus Pathway not proven 1-24, 1-40, 1-82, 1-123, 1-124, 1-125, 1-126, 1-130, 1-222 No references found indicating A. flavus as the causal agent of disease on pepper. There are two references found where A. flavus is reported as being associated with pepper seed. However, the origin and handing of the seed sources were not specified. In addition, seed as a pathway was not clearly demonstrated. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. flavus on pepper seed. A. flavus can be an opportunistic pathogen of corn, peanut and cotton. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. flavus on pepper seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for A. flavus on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Aspergillus niger Fungus Pathway not proven 1-24, 1-40, 1-82, 1-127, 1-128, 1-130, 1-222 No references found indicating A. niger as the causal agent of disease on pepper. There are two references found where A. niger is reported as being associated with pepper seed. However, the origin and handing of the seed sources were not specified. In addition, seed as a pathway was not clearly demonstrated. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. niger on pepper seed. Seed can be a pathway for A. niger on onion, corn and peanut. Commercial seed cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. niger on pepper seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for A. niger on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici Fungus Pathway not proven 1-135, 1-226 F. oxysporum f. sp. capsici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of pepper. One abstract reports finding F. oxysporum f. sp. capsici on pepper seed from an open market by species specific primers. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for F. oxysporum f. sp. capsici on pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected plants), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the threat of the fungus being associated with the seed. No No references found indicating a seed test exists for F. oxysporum f. sp. capsici on pepper. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Colletotrichum coccodes Synonym: Colletotrichum phomoides Fungus Yes 1-1, 1-7, 1-39, 1-40, 1-72, 1-131, 1-141, 1-142 C. coccodes is one of the causal agents of anthracnose of pepper. The disease is not commonly seen in pepper seed production areas. If fruit is infected, seed can be a pathway for C. coccodes in pepper. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 1-10, 1-20 Several methods are compared in reference 1-10. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), used as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Colletotrichum capsici Fungus Yes 1-1, 1-7, 1-39, 1-40, 1-72, 1-131, 1-141, 1-142 C. capsici is one of the causal agents of anthracnose of pepper. The disease is not commonly seen in pepper seed production areas. If fruit is infected, seed can be a pathway for C. capsici. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections and careful selection of healthy fruit should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Commercial harvesting (avoiding infected fruit), cleaning and sanitization of pepper seed would reduce the potential for this organism being associated with the seed. Yes Incubation 1-10, 1-20 Several methods are compared in reference 1-10. Yes Chemical (seed coating) No references found, however, a seed treatment (such as Thiram slurry), as a prophylactic measure, may be effective against the fungus.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Viroid Pathway not proven 1-11, 1-101, 1-102, 1-229, 1-230, 1-231, 1-248, 1-249 Pepper can be a host of PSTVd, however, it is more important in potato and tomato. Some references suggest seed as a pathway for PSTVd in pepper, however, references with data do not support seed as a pathway for PSTVd in pepper. One reference evaluated a small number of both pepper and tomato seedlings grown from PSTVd infected plants and did not detect PSTVd as far out as 27 weeks after germination. Similarly, in another reference no seed transmission in seedlings grown from seed of pepper plants infected with PSTVd was demonstrated. One reference has experimental data indicating seed as a pathway for PSTVd in tomato, however, the proper controls were not included which raises questions about the accuracy of the data. Symptom expression of PSTVd can vary depending on the host and environmental conditions. A quality systems approach in production of the seeds by crop inspections should reduce the chances of this organism being associated with the seed. Yes DNA/RNA based A seed assay using RT-PCR is commercially available. No No references found indicating a seed treatment effective against PSTVd in pepper.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xanthomonas vesicatoria Bacterium Yes 1-15, 1-26, 1-28, 1-115, 1-116, 1-264 Seed is a known pathway for Xanthomonas vesicatoria in pepper and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes DNA/RNA based, Seed wash 1-6, 1-47, 1-99, 1-117, 1-243, 1-244 An ISHI-Veg method is described. Other methods for detection have been described, however, some have not been validated. A seed test using dilution plating is commercially available. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-46, 1-118 There are a number of methods described for reducing the presence of X. vesicatoria on seed. Risk management practices may vary with producers.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Synonym: Xanthomonas vesicatoria Bacterium Yes 1-15, 1-26, 1-28, 1-115, 1-116, 1-264 Seed is a known pathway for Xanthomonas euvesicatoria in pepper and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes DNA/RNA based, Seed wash 1-6, 1-47, 1-99, 1-117, 1-243, 1-244 An ISHI-Veg method is described. Other methods for detection have been described, however, some have not been validated. A seed test using dilution plating is commercially available. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-46, 1-118 There are a number of methods described for reducing the presence of X. euvesicatoria on seed. Risk management practices may vary with producers.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Xanthomonas gardneri Synonym: Xanthomonas vesicatoria Bacterium Yes 1-15, 1-26, 1-28, 1-115, 1-116, 1-264 Seed is a known pathway for Xanthomonas gardneri in pepper and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes DNA/RNA based, Seed wash 1-6, 1-47, 1-99, 1-117, 1-243, 1-244 An ISHI-Veg method is described. Other methods for detection have been described, however, some have not been validated. A seed test using dilution plating is commercially available. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-46, 1-118 There are a number of methods described for reducing the presence of X. gardneri on seed. Risk management practices may vary with producers.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV) Virus Yes 1-57, 1-88, 1-89, 1-90, 1-208 Seed is a known pathway for PMMV in pepper and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Serological, Inoculation 1-240, 1-243, 1-244 An ISHI-Veg method is described. A sample of seed is ground (milled) for testing by ELISA as a pre-screen followed by a local lesion assay for confirmation. Seed tests are commercially available. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-88, 1-105 There are a number of methods described for reducing the presence of PMMV on seed. Risk management practices may vary with producers.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) Virus Yes 1-40, 1-105, 1-215 Seed is a known pathway for ToMV in pepper and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Serological, Inoculation 1-11, 1-240, 1-244, 1-245 An ISHI-Veg method is described. A sample of seed is ground (milled) for testing by ELISA as a pre-screen followed by a local lesion assay for confirmation. One reference describes an RT-PCR method, however, negative controls are lacking and the method is not validated. Seed tests are available in some commercial labs. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-88, 1-105 There are a number of methods described for reducing the presence of ToMV on seed. Risk management practices may vary with producers.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Virus Yes 1-14, 1-34, 1-42, 1-62, 1-63, 1-211 Seed is a known pathway for TMV in pepper and the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Serological, Inoculation 1-240, 1-243, 1-244, 1-245 An ISHI-Veg method is described. A sample of seed is ground (milled) for testing by ELISA as a pre-screen followed by a local lesion assay for confirmation. One reference describes an RT-PCR method, however, negative controls are lacking and the method is not validated. Seed tests are available in some commercial labs. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-88 There are a number of methods described for reducing the presence of TMV on seed. Risk management practices may vary with producers.
Capsicum annuum Pepper Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) Virus Pathway not proven 1-266, 1-267, 1-268, 1-269 ToBRFV, a tobamovirus, causes disease in pepper. It is able to survive in common weeds that act as a potential reservoir for the virus. Like other tobamoviruses it is very stable and can easily be spread via mechanical transmission. Seed transmission has been reported for ToBRFV based on general publications on Tobamoviruses and the epidemiology of recent outbreaks. There are no specific publications on pepper seed being a pathway for ToBRFV. Given the damage ToBRFV causes to the pepper crop the recommended management strategy is to evaluate seed productions by field inspection or seed testing of a representative sample of each seed lot. Yes Serological, Inoculation 1-240 An ISHI-Veg method is described to detect infectious tobamovirus (including ToBRFV) in pepper seed. A sample of seed is ground (milled) for testing by ELISA as a pre-screen followed by a local lesion assay for confirmation. Commercial tests are also available; but information on whether they are validated is unclear. Yes Chemical (seed disinfection) 1-88 No references found indicating a seed treatment specifically effective against ToBRFV in pepper. There are methods described for reducing the presence of other Tobamoviruses on solanaceous seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Acalymma vittatum Synonym: Acalymma vittata Insect No 9-16, 9-17, 9-84, 9-171, 9-205 The adults of the striped cucumber beetles feed mainly on foliage, pollen and flowers, especially on young seedlings, while larvae feed on roots and stems. These beetles are vectors of the causal agent of bacterial wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila). No references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. vittatum in watermelon. Commercial seed harvesting, cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for A. vittatum to be associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. vittatum on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Alternaria spp. Fungus No 9-16, 9-170 There are many species of Alternaria, the most common on watermelon is A. cucumerina (see that entry for details). Strains of Alternaria alternata have been recorded causing leaf spotting in watermelon. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Alternaria spp. in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Alternaria spp. on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Athelia rolfsii Synonym: Corticium rolfsii Fungus No 9-8, 9-16, 9-35 This fungus is a soil borne pathogen with minor importance on cucurbits. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for A. rolfsii on watermleon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. rolfsii on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Cepaea hortensis Synonym: Helix hortensis Insect No 9-93, 9-177, 9-178 No references found indicating watermelon seed as a pathway for C. hortensis. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. hortensis on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Chalara elegans Synonym: Thielaviopsis basicola Fungus No 9-28, 9-94 C. elegans is the causal agent of black root rot of cucurbits, including watermelon. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. elegans in watermelon. Seeds may be a pathway for the fungus in groundnut. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. elegans on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Choanephora cucurbitarum Fungus No 9-16, 9-43, 9-95, 9-96, 9-97, 9-126, 9-179, 9-181 C. cucurbitarum is the causal agent of a fruit rot of cucurbits, and is most commonly found on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). There are very few references found indicating that watermelon is a host and no references found indicating seed as a pathway for C. cucurbitarum in watermelon. Seed may be a pathway for C. cucubitarum on Amarantus spp., okra (Hibiscus esculentus) and soybean (Glycine max). Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of C. cucurbitarum on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) Virus Not a host 9-3, 9-44, 9-106, 9-207, 9-208, 9-209 CLSV is transmitted by the soil fungus Olpidium radicale and the incidence is limited. There is limited evidence as to whether watermelon is a host of CLSV. In some references inoculation of watermelon plants with CLSV resulted in local lesions only which is indicative of a non-host reaction. No other references found indicating watermelon as a host of CLSV. The only reference to seed transmission is in cucumber and is unpublished experimental data that cannot be evaluated. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of CLSV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) Virus No 9-12, 9-16, 9-45, 9-46, 9-47, 9-48, 9-107, 9-108, 9-110, 9-111 CMV has a wide host range which includes watermelon, although the symptoms are less severe in this host. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for CMV in watermelon. Seed as a pathway has been suggested for some cucurbits, however, other references have not been found to support these suggestions. One reference cites seed as a pathway in Cucurbita spp., however, based on the scientific limitations the information is discounted. Seed has been reported as a pathway in bean, soybean and lentils, spinach and experimentally in pepper. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of CMV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Dacus spp. Insect No 9-114, 9-182, 9-183, 9-184 Dacus ciliatus is the most common species of this genus of fruit flies associated with cucurbits. The insect can be dispersed with fresh fruit. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Dacus spp. on watermelon seed. Commercial seed harvesting, cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of Dacus spp. being associated with watermelon seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Dacus spp. on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Delia platura Insect No 9-114, 9-185, 9-186, 9-187 The larvae of Bean seed fly (or Corn seed maggot) overwinter in the soil and bore into cotyledons, epicotyl and hypocotyl of newly planted large seeds (beans, maize, pea, or wheat) and prevent germination. Watermelon is not a primary host but the larvae can be found on planted seed and transplants of watermelon. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. platura on watermelon seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. platura on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Diaphania nitidalis Insect No 9-115, 9-188, 9-189 Primary hosts of the pickleworm are summer and winter squash, and to a lesser extent cucumber, cantaloupe, and pumpkin. Watermelon is only a very rare host of this insect. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for D. nitidalis in any cucurbits. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of D. nitidalis on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Erwinia tracheiphila Bacterium No 9-16, 9-28, 9-84, 9-104, 9-118, 9-119, 9-190, 9-205 No references found indicating seed as a pathway for E. tracheiphila in watermelon. This bacterium is the causal agent of bacterial wilt and is transmitted through cucumber beetles (see: Acalymma vittatum on watermelon). It probably survives epiphytically. Infection caused by this bacterium is rare in watermelon, even mentioned by some authors as anecdotal on this host. Commercial harvesting, cleaning and sanitization would reduce the potential for E. tracheiphila to be associated with the seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of E. tracheiphila on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Liriomyza trifolii Insect No 9-16, 9-124, 9-191, 9-192, 9-193 Leaf miners occur on watermelon. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for L. trifolii on watermelon or any other hosts. Leaf miners are easily transported with plant material such as cut flowers, branches with foliage and leafy vegetables. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of L. trifolii on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Meloidogyne spp. Nematode No 9-16, 9-130 The Pest Risk Assessment for Meloidogyne minor completed by the Dutch Plant Protection Office clearly states that this genera of nematodes are not associated with seeds. In addition, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Meloidogyne spp. on watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Meloidogyne spp. on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Melon rugose mosaic virus (MRMV) Virus No 9-56, 9-57, 9-137 Watermelon can be a host of MRMV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for MRMV in watermelon. The distribution of MRMV is limited to Sudan and Yemen. Seed as a pathway in melon was only shown through experimentation and occurred at a low level. (See MRMV in the melon pest list for details.) Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of MRMV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Monosporascus cannonballus Fungus No 9-16, 9-58, 9-120, 9-122, 9-195, 9-196, 9-197 M. cannonballus is the causal agent of Monosporascus root rot and vine decline of watermelon and melon. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for M. cannonballus in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. cannonballus on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Myiopardalis pardalina Insect No 9-59, 9-151 The insect (Baluchistan melon fruit fly) occurs primarily on melons but may occur on watermelon. The flies lay their eggs and larvae eat the fruit flesh and seeds. The flies prefer to lay their eggs at an early stage of fruit development. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for M. pardalina in watermelon. Commercial seed harvesting, cleaning and sanitization should remove the threat of M. pardalina being associated with seed. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of M. pardalina on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Pratylenchus brachyurus Nematode No 9-60, 9-138 Watermelon can be a host of this nematode, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. brachyurus on watermelon. Nematode movement is primarily passive: soil, water, tools, etc. This nematode has been detected infecting the peanut hull. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. brachyurus on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Pratylenchus spp. Nematode No 9-16, 9-136 Pratylenchus spp. are considered as a polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes and watermelon can be a host. However, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for Pratylenchus spp on watermelon. Nematode movement is primarily passive and through soil, water, tools and so on. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Pratylenchus spp. on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Pseudoperonospora cubensis Fungus No 9-16, 9-98, 9-126 The fungus is an obligate parasite and causes downy mildew of watermelon and other cucurbits. It is normally confined to leaves and occasionally it has been found on fruits. One reference found with experimental data indicating seed as a pathway in certain cucurbits. Although watermelon was included in this study, no data were reported on the transmission of P. cubensis through watermelon seeds. No other references found indicating seed as a pathway for P. cubensis on watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of P. cubensis on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Radopholus similis Nematode No 9-16, 9-112, 9-142 Radopholus similis (the burrowing nematode) is reported to attack watermelons. The life cycle of the nematode is restricted to the roots of watermelon. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. similis in watermelon. Dissemination of R. similis is mainly through materials such as corms, suckers and seedlings. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. similis on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Ralstonia solanacearum Synonym: Pseudomonas solanacearum Bacterium No 9-16, 9-61, 9-113, 9-121 Ralstonia solanacearum is a very common soilborne pathogen with a great diversity of host plants. Occasionally the bacterium has been isolated from some species of cucurbits. However, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for R. solanacearum in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of R. solanacearum on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Virus No 9-65, 9-148, 9-149, 9-150 The virus is worldwide and commonly transmitted by the dagger nematode, Xiphinema. Watermelon can be a host of TRSV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway in cucumber. Seed is a pathway in some other plant species. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TRSV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Virus No 9-70, 9-79, 9-119 TSWV has a wide host range including watermelon. It is vectored by thrips and seed is not a pathway for Tospoviruses. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of TSWV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Verticillium albo-atrum Fungus No 9-16, 9-73, 9-119 Verticillium albo-atrum is a ubiquitous soil borne fungus. V. albo-atrum can infect cucurbits, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for V. albo-atrum in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of V. albo-atrum on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Verticillium dahliae Fungus No 9-16, 9-71, 9-73, 9-120, 9-164, 9-165, 9-166 Verticillium dahliae is a ubiquitous soil borne fungus and is the causal agent of wilt of watermelon. Seeds can be a pathway for the fungus in some host species, however, no references found indication seed as a pathway for V. dahliae in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of V. dahliae on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) Virus No 9-16, 9-74, 9-154 WmCSV is a whitefly transmitted Geminivirus. Watermelon can be a host, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for WmCSV in watermelon or any other hosts. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of WmCSV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV) Virus No 9-12, 9-16, 9-75, 9-155, 9-156 Watermelon is a host of WMV, however, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for WMV in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of WMV on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae Bacterium No 9-16, 9-76, 9-77, 9-167 This bacterium causes Bacterial Leaf Spot on cucurbits including watermelon. However, no references found indicating seed as a pathway for X. campestris pv. cucurbitae in watermelon. Seed as a pathway is reported in squash and pumpkin, but not in watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of X. campestris pv cucurbitae on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Xiphinema  spp. Nematode No 9-16, 9-80, 9-81, 9-120 Watermelon is a very minor host of this genus of nematodes. Xiphinema americanum is the vector for Tobacco ring spot virus (TRSV) in cucurbits. No references found indicating seed as a pathway for Xiphinema spp. on watermelon. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of Xiphinema spp. on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Bacterium Not a host 9-19, 9-20, 9-51 The most common hosts for this bacterium are rice and maize. No references found indicating watermelon is a host of A. avenae subsp. avenae. Available information indicates there is no scientific basis for regulation of A. avenae subsp. avenae on watermelon seed.
Citrullus lanatus Watermelon Alternaria brassicicola Fungus Not a host 9-28, 9-120, 9-144